In our readings, we have seen examples of how society can be undermined or destabilized. Among the major causes of such damage are: injustice, lack of respect and responsibility to others, self-interest, abuse of power, conflicts, war and fighting. For example, in Hesiod’s “Thegony”, we can see that Auranos and Cronus were unjust and self-interested leaders, because they only cared about themselves. Auranos was only interested in mating with Gaia. He did not care about his children; therefore, he sent them back to Earh.
Cronus hated his children. In addition, he was afraid that they will overthrow him, so he swallowed them. As a result, there was no balance of rights and responsibilities in that society. Therefore, they were opposed and their power was taken away by their successors. Another example of the destruction of the society can be found in the Hesiod’s, Works and Days, “Five Ages”. During the silver era people were hurting each other, and they also refused to honor gods. During bronze era people only cared about fighting and war.
People from these two eras did not care to improve the quality of their lives. As a result, they all killed each other and their society came to the end. Self-interest is another destructive behavior for a society. For example, in the Hesiod’s, Theogony, “Prometheus”, main character, Prometheus steals fire from Zeus and brings it to people. Prometheus makes Zeus look weak. In response, Zeus orders to create Pandora that will bring diseases and sorrows to people. Here we can see that Prometheus self-interest to look strong and smart causes whole society to suffer.
Demeter from “Homeric Hymn to Demeter” is also driven by self-interest which is to reunite with her daughter Persephone. Her motive leads to the abuse of power. She takes away Earth’s fertility that causes famine and suffering off all mortal men. As a result, society is destabilized by riots and civil war. In Thucydides’, “The Peloponnesian War” the consequences of the Trojan War and exhaustion of the Athens and Sparta in warfare causes the damage and weakness to the society. Here we can see how personal problem of loosing a wife led to the Trojan War ,a war which involved most of the population of the society.
Since, the leader left and there was no stability and strong centralized power, neighbors could easily take over the territories. Such two greatest powers as Athens and Sparta come to collapse as they draw each other to exhaustion by constant warfare, and as the interstate rivalry created dangerous instability in the society. We have also seen examples of how to make a stable society. Among the main principles are: fair and just leaders, distribution of power, respect and honor to gods and people, bonds and alliances between people and states, no class wars, no tyranny, mysteries.
For example, in the Hesiond’s “Theogony”, Zeus acts as a fair and just leader. He equally distributes power among the gods. He demanded respect among gods and among people. We can see that there was a strong central authority which brought balance and united people in shared purpose, such as shared identity, rights and responsibilities to the state. To stabilize a society it is also important to assure that no one will threaten its strength and solidity. For this the alliances should be created with those who can provide manforce and support.
We can see that Zeus creates alliances with Cyclopes and hundred-handers to fight over the titans. In addition, it is also important to protect the society from the civil wars, and the was between the states.. In the Homer’s Illiad, “Book 21”, we can see how Apollo refuses to fight with his uncle. Another important principle of strong society is to assure that people respect each other and that they are responsible for their acts. In the “Homeric Hymn to Demeter”, people are given mysteries only if they live just and fair lives. This makes people to fear to commit bad acts.
Summary “How to” essay help 123: essay help 123
The job of a reporter is to recall relevant social and economic accounts that take place daily without siding on an issue. Majority of the time, journalists and reporters lack credibility to prove the accuracy or falsity of the information that they release to the public. While some seldom favors an issue relative to their opinion, others remain neutral and make the great refusal. Gladstone indirectly refers to the “Great Refusal” by providing brief historic scenarios that elucidate the controversy of media bias against society.
She introduces a scene from the poem “Inferno” to provide a visual that illustrates the million of lost souls trapped for eternity in Hades. These lost souls, or the neutrals, “refused to commit themselves”. If they had put their trust in the bible and believe in GOD then they wouldn’t be stuck in a solemn place near the gates of hell. Even though the “anguished souls” didn’t commit any evil intentions, confusion and uncertainty about the presence of GOD lead them to remain neutral during this moral crisis.
The great refusal can have a positive or negative outcome that can influence how society views the media, whether it contains “moral courage” or “culpable bias”. Gladstone concludes her textual conceptualization by referring to the NY Times publisher, who performed his speech by taking on a more liberal biased approach to the public. If he had refused to commit to a fixed opinion then his “great refusal” would have prevented bias and maybe the man wouldn’t have the urge to “puke” after reading only a few paragraphs of the New York Times.
Information Systems Proposal homework essay help: homework essay help
This helps in transferring information to be able to place orders with other providers for their customers. Finding the right information system is important in order to be able to successfully operate a business. These systems will help in developments in several areas, planning, and to manage on the everyday operation of the business. One must have an understanding about the different types of information systems. One not knowing about the information systems can make it harder on operating a business.
Business owners need to know which information systems will be best for running their business. This proposal is to explain the different types of information systems that would benefit the record store. It will show the advantages and disadvantages of each information system. The systems to be considered are Office automation system, Transaction processing, Management information system, Executive dashboard and Electronic commerce system. Table 1 Type of system| Function| Example|
Office automation system| Supports daily activities| Microsoft Office| Transaction processing| Processes the transaction data | Point-of-sale terminal| Management IS| Supports company activities | Total sales for each customer| Executive dashboard| Views performance goals| Status of sales| Electronic commerce system| Enables transactions between organizations and customers| Enables sales via internet| Office Automation Systems Office automation systems are networked computer hardware and software.
Many automation systems are applied to business and communication functions to prepare written communications and strategic planning. Office automation can save time and money by matching the outside authorities in typing, printing, or even electronic recording. (Office Automation Systems Research & Articles, n. d. ) Creating electronic office environments eliminates paperwork. Some examples of office automation systems are: * Microsoft Word * Microsoft Access * Microsoft Excel * Microsoft PowerPoint * Lotus 1-2-3
The benefits of using office automation systems are that since paperwork is put into this system it removes the piles of paperwork that are on the desk. This allows for a certain invoice to be found. It helps personal to be able to stay on task. It holds schedules and any other collaboration tools that are necessary. Office automation systems also create documents and generate reports for everyday productivity. The system also allows daily operating support. The main advantage is the cost effectiveness by archiving and saving documents. About Office Automation: Advantages and Disadvantages, n. d. ) The drawbacks of office automation system are training the employees properly. If they are not trained properly on the system, it can cause certain tasks not to be completed properly or on time. There could also be compatibility problems; if there are too many files it could slow the computer down which would be time consuming. Transaction Processing Transaction processing monitors, stores, collects, and process data that are generated from business transactions.
It handles high volume, avoids errors, downtime, and record results accurately, and also maintains privacy and security. (Week 10: Chapter 8-Functional Area Information Systems, n. d. ) This system will allow the salesperson to electronically record information from the sales by ringing up the customers. It also takes credit or debit card transactions. It will also show what types of records are being sold and when it needs to reorder a certain type of record or a certain artist. Some of the advantages are: transaction response is fast, data is distributed as needed, fast error correction. Transaction Processing Systems, 2010) Some of the disadvantages are hardware and software is expensive, the system can crash, and data corruption would require backup. (Transaction Processing Systems, 2010) Management Information System Management information system is to support activities of the company. This system is used to collect, process, and store data. (What is management information systems? , 2012) This system carries out all of the daily productivity of the business. “One of the biggest advantages of management information systems is decentralization, which monitors and frees up resources.
Coordinates projects, activities, and minimizes information overload. ” (Advantages & Disadvantages of Information Management Systems, 2012) Management information system also allows the ability to track merchandise inventory from time of purchase to being sold. The disadvantages of the management information system are if the system goes down the tracking process with slow down. “The system will need upgrades, modifications, and other revisions. This system also needs constant monitoring. ” (Advantages & Disadvantages of Information Management Systems, 2012) Executive Dashboard
An executive dashboard summaries information about the aspects of a business that is important to executives. (Rainer & Cegielski, 2011) An executive dashboard shows the operations analysis, and tracks earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization by each department and each employee. (Interactive Dashboard Samples and Gallery, 1999) Image 1 Some of the benefits of an executive dashboard can increase in bottom line revenue, promotes business by informing decision making, identify and correct trends, reduce overhead costs, stop duplicate data entry, and provide correct reports quickly. Executive dashboard benefits, 2007) Once the dashboard is in place, it keeps monitoring goals and objectives. There are some disadvantages of the dashboard such as it warns that it can be misrepresented and used as a monitoring tool for employees instead of the company’s performance tool. (Advantages & Disadvantages of a Balanced Scorecard, n. d. ) Electronic Commerce System An electronic commerce system allows the selling and buying of merchandise over the internet. Some benefits it has are that it allows businesses to be able to bring in more clients which will also bring in more profits.
It also runs 24/7 including holidays which will benefit the company greatly. This will give customers the advantage of looking for the products that they want and need. This system will allow businesses to be able to perform business-to-business and business-to-consumer electronic commerce. Along with the advantages are the disadvantages. Some of these consist of due to the lack of internet knowledge it still has not reached many people. (Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Commerce (e-commerce), 2012) If the system is down then the loss of internet customers’ transactions will occur.
Many people do not want to release their personal or private information on the internet. Conclusion While researching about these several different systems for the record store, I find the most beneficial systems to use for the record store would be the transaction processing system which would allow the store to track what records are being sold and when to reorder a certain record or artist. The executive dashboard would help the store to be able to track sales and inventory.
Gold Standard essay help tips: essay help tips
The ever-decreasing power of the dollar has made many an advocate of the gold standard and in-fact many want to return to the gold standard as a monetary system. Over the past 2 years alone the purchasing power of the dollar has decreased 30%. In the exact same time frame, the price of gold has increased by over 100%. Throughout this paper I will try to prove why the use of the gold standard in modern day society would not be better than paper money thru various analysis and logic. Definition of the Gold Standard
What exactly is the gold standard? The gold standard is a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold. Typically this standard was used in the 1800’s into the early 1900’s as a means of currency. This currency today no longer exists; our current currency is called the fiat system, which is merely paper money that is printed in to existence. Introduction Using the gold standard in today’s society would be ludicrous; totally changing the way governing bodies would be able to conduct business.
The gold standard is not a good monetary system for this day and age, though proven to be more stable in someway it lacks the ability to be readily available as the paper money is, in addition to acting as a line of credit to the government when needed. In order for the gold standard to exist, gold would need to become a fixed price commodity or asset. All debt that the government has would need to be paid off and the paper money would have to become inconsistent. The return to the gold standard would inherently deplete the worlds gold reserve because the amount of paper money in circulation in comparison to that of gold is not evenly yoked. Not to mention the increasingly numerous proponents of a gold standard persuasively argue that budget deficits and large federal borrowings would be difficult to finance under such a standard. Again, heavy claims against paper dollars cause few technical problems, for the Treasury can legally borrow as many dollars as Congress authorizes. ” (1) “With unlimited dollar conversion into gold, the ability to issue dollar claims would be severely limited. Obviously if you cannot finance federal deficits, you cannot create them.
However, the restrictions of gold convertibility would profoundly alter the politics of fiscal policy that have prevailed for over half a century. ” (1) “In years past a desire to return to a monetary system based on gold was perceived as nostalgia for an era when times were simpler, problems less complex and the world not threatened with nuclear annihilation. But after a decade of destabilizing inflation and economic stagnation, the restoration of a gold standard has become an issue that is clearly rising on the economic policy agenda. ” (1)
The Constitution of the United States explains that the gold and silver standard was to be the only currency per the constitution. Figure 1 is the exact verbiage found in the Constitution of the United States, which at no point prohibits the printing of un-backed paper money. “No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. “
Figure1: Article I, Section 10, Clause 1 Historical Gold Overview From 1833 – 1890 the price of gold was approximately $20. 65 per ounce of gold. This price only fluctuated roughly $0. 01 in these 57 years. From 1891 to 1930 the price of gold was approximately $21. 32 per ounce. With this being said from 1833 to 1930 the price of gold ranged from $20. 58 – $21. 32 per ounce. During the great depression (1931) the U. S. economy took a turn for the worst, the price of gold struck an all time low; with the price of gold being a dismal $17. 06 per ounce, which essentially means the value of the gold decreased.
Similarly, the way the U. S. dollar has decreased in value today the gold standard did they same thing during the Great Depression, when the economy was not doing well. Figure 2. Inflation Adjusted Gold Price If you look at figure 2, it shows the inflation of gold prices from 1914 thru 2007. In comparison if you look at figure 3, you will notice very similar trends. Since approximately 2001 the price of gold has began to increase at which time the dollar also started to decrease. This fluctuation is a direct result of the economy’s instability.
If you look at figure 2, you can witness how around the 1980’s the price of gold hit an all time high with a rapid declination on the lat 1980’s on in to the early1990’s. Figure 2, 3, and 4 all show graphically how thru inflation the dollar lost its value, the price of gold rapidly increased, and how the price of gold matches up to the US dollar. Figure 3. U. S. Dollar vs. Gold Due to inflation, the price of gold and the US dollar, appear to be growing in two different directions. This growth equates to inflation. Figure 4 shows percentage of how much the US dollar is inflated. Figure 4.
Cumulative Inflation Chart (1913 – 2007) Fiat System In a fiat system, there is no non-monetary demand for the money at all; it typically consists of pieces of printed-paper, and the supply is determined by a printing press controlled by whoever issues it. (Its value is maintained entirely by its monetary demand. ) This seems paradoxical, since the existence of a monetary demand for it is dependent on its having value. In practice, the problem has usually been solved by gradually creating a fiat system out of an existing fractional reserve system, eventually eliminating entirely the bank’s obligation to pay in the commodity.
It could also be created out of a commodity system by gradually increasing the senior age at a time when monetary demand is increasing, and allowing the monetary demand to raise the price of the coin to a large multiple of the value of the commodity it contains. Once created, fiat systems have proved astonishingly stable; the convenience of using the same money as everyone else is apparently so great that people continue using a fiat money (instead of making their transactions in terms of some convenient commodity, such as gold) even when it is rapidly losing value. 2) In terms of producing stable and predictable prices, a fiat system is at the same time the best and the worst alternative. It is the best alternative because it is possible, by following some simple monetary rule (such as “keep the amount of money in circulation constant”), to make the supply of money perfectly predictable, or by following some slightly more complicated rule (print money when the price index goes below 1, burn it when the price index goes above 1) to make (average) prices almost perfectly predictable, automatically accommodating the supply of money to the demand.
It is the worst of systems because it is possible to expand the money supply virtually without limit (the cost being the cost of adding additional zeros to the newly printed bills to convert tens into hundreds, or hundreds into millions). (2) Presently in the United States we use the Fait System or “paper” money. This system has been in use formally since President Nixon and has been stable prior to the last few years. Only recently has this become a topic of controversy, whether to revert back to the Gold Standard or continue to operate using the fait system. Analysis of International Monetary Reserves in Current Monetary Cycle
Figure 5 shows why examination of the phases in the development of the World Monetary system since Bretton Woods in 1944 in terms of International Monetary Reserves may be a guide to the future. (3) Figure 5. International Monetary Reserves (Gold at Market) Billion of SDRs In Phase One, total International Monetary Reserves (IMRs) grew at an average of 2. 8 per cent from 1952 to 1969. This first phase was therefore one of monetary stability via a US Dollar/Gold exchange standard where the World Monetary Base grew more or less in line with the World economy at approximately 3 per cent annually.
Phase Two followed from 1969 to 1980 when World IMRs grew on average at 23 per cent annually. It was impossible for the World economy to grow as quickly, so this was a phase of acute monetary and price inflation. To accommodate such a development, the Bretton Woods Agreement was abandoned in 1971 in favor of the Smithsonian Agreement in which the US government ended its commitment to maintain the price of its Currency relative to Gold and all Currencies were obliged to float, thus terminating the official commitment to fixed exchange rates.
This destructive phase was replaced by Phase Three in 1981 with a US led Central Bank commitment to “quantitative” stability in terms of the World Central Bank Monetary Base but no “qualitative” guarantee of stability through linkage to Gold at a fixed exchange rate. Since then and until recently, IMR’s have grown by an average of only 6 per cent, the period characterized by broad stability but subject to occasional interruptions. Much of this period experienced a phase of general monetary disinflation, although there have been periods of misaligned exchange rates between the US Dollar and the Japanese Yen in particular.
In the absence of a stabilizing Gold Standard the danger of Phase Four has come upon us – monetary instability. This could be either inflationary or deflationary, depending on the nature of social, political and economic pressures at the time. Given the cumulative rise already observed in World Debt in relation to World IMRs, presently “instability” has taken the form of monetary inflation as Debt burdens bear down on the World economy and take their toll. (3) Overall the system proved to be more of an inflation hazard than help.
Without the gold standard US used inflation as a tool to mitigate the risks the economy was taking and to reduce the amount of debt the country was in. As you can see from figure 4 above, this was a predictable event that one economist saw in the making. It is no surprise to those who follow the price of gold and from my research it will not be the last time the price of gold escalates and the power of the dollar descends. Historically, after the dollar begins to regain its strength the price of gold begins to decrease, though this is not an instantaneous event.
Why not the Gold Standard The gold standard would not be impossible to reinvent however it would pose a variety of limitations on the way the entire world lives and functions. The overall growth of money would have to be limited and the credit would have to become backed by some form of payment other than good faith. The giant uproar of the gold standard reared its head when confidence in paper money began to decline, which lead to the high cost of gold. 1980’s saw similar trends. Gold reached a phenomenal $850 only to decline in 1999 to $252. Gold may be susceptible to adverse economic, political or regulatory development. The price of gold is subject to substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time and may be affected by unpredicted international monetary and political policies. ” (7) If you look at figure 4 it shows exactly how much inflation the US dollar is presently operating in, 2071. 23%. This high inflation further prevents the US from being able to revert to back to the Gold Standard in addition to other factors.
Figure 3 also clearly identifies how money now is not the same as it was 1980’s. When looking at figure 3, the red line clearly shows how in 1980 using the price of the dollar from 2007 the price of gold would have bee $2145 per ounce. While using the US dollar from the 1980’s during the 1980’s the price of gold was $850 per ounce, which is a difference of $1295. This is an astronomical figure, which indicates that in order to in order to revert back to the gold standard deflation of the dollar would have o occur, the circulation of paper currency would need to be limited and the United States would have to make a huge effort to regain the paper money that is in circulation overseas by more than half. Pro’s and Con’s of the Gold Standard Pro: Money becomes a commodity Fixed price of currency Limiting the government’s ability to increase the money supply could possibly prevent inflation Con: Credit will be limited for the US Treasury Cost of producing gold will become astronomical due to supply and demand Gold will not be able to be produced quickly enough
Gold mining would become overly expensive Unstable prices due to vulnerable economies Government may have to maintain significant reserves of gold in order to provide liquidity for banking Summary In conclusion there is no viable way in our current economic state that we could revert back to the gold standard. Presently in this day and age we function as buy now pay later world. In essence the gold standard would force us to live more within our means as a society and would force the government to use less I-O-U’s as methods of payment.
When there is mention of the gold standard and how much better the USA would be in addition to how much better the gold standard is over the fait currency is all speculation. In the lat 1800 – early 1930’s the gold only fluctuated approximately $74 and the gold standard was the method of payment. Speculators believe that in our current day and age the gold standard would not have fluctuated nearly as much as the price of gold has, which is totally erroneous. Due to so much economic trauma and the precious metal that gold is, it seems absurd to believe the price of gold would remain consistent.
However fact remains that the gold standard is though of as more stable because a commodity backs it where paper money is just that, paper. Ultimately it is not the price of gold that has risen; it is the purchasing power of the dollar that has decreased. It is my belief that the Federal Reserve has made it appear as if gold is the determining factor for the price of the US dollar, when it is not; ultimately the price of the US dollar affects the price of gold.
At the days end it would be better if an asset, such as gold or silver, backed paper money- however it is nearly impossible. As of 2005, over 760 billion USD were in circulation. Of this 760 billion USD in circulation, half to two-thirds are outside of the United States. By the definition of the constitutional dollar, one ounce of silver equals a silver dollar coin. Given this definition there is no feasible way that the United States can afford to back our monetary system in such a way with out depleting our reserve and the would of its natural resource.
Preventing Infection While Inserting Central essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers
The most common infection is the central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI). The risk is greater when the central intravenous line is in place for a longer period of time, especially when the catheter is not maintained appropriately or when there is a leakage of IV fluid into the tissues. Inserting a central intravenous line is a sterile procedure so it is a nurse’s responsibility to minimize the risk of infections. Health care-associated infections increase the length of hospitalization, hospital cost, patient discomfort, and morbidity and mortality rates (O’Grady & Pearson, 2002).
Thus, it is important for health care professional and nurses to be responsible for knowing their roles and how to use maximum sterile barriers while placing central venous catheters. According to the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality (AHRQ), there are many practices healthcare professionals should follow to prevent CLABSI (Marschall, 2008). Maximum sterile barriers are one of the essential practices when inserting central venous catheters to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections, which are observed in a patient care scenario that occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Jenkins is a former 30 weeks-premature male infant born with respiratory distress and placed on a ventilator. He later developed bowel distention and could not tolerate formula. He was started on a course of antibiotics and was given nothing by mouth (NPO). Infant was then started on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and intralipids (IL) via peripheral intravenous line. Upper gastrointestinal X-rays were done and showed bowel perforation, so a pediatric surgeon was consulted for bowel surgery.
It was found that the infant had exploratory laparotomy and bowel resection. Thus, the infant remained on NPO and total parenteral nutrition and intralipids continued to be administered. Due to long term needs of intravenous fluids (IVF), it was difficult to maintain the intravenous site, so the infant needed a CVC. Initially, a peripheral inserted central catheter line was unsuccessfully attempted three times by a nurse practitioner. The pediatric surgeon was consulted for the second time to surgically place a CVC for long term IVF fluids replacement.
Before the patient went for the procedure, all health care personnel were responsible in following the recommended AHRQ guidelines to prevent an infection from occurring. This would include the monitoring of central line insertion before and after central line management with ongoing maintenance care (Marschall, 2008). Before Insertion: All nurses would be educated on the risk factors of CLABSI and proper maintenance of the central line, such as administration of medication, IV tubing changes, and dressing changes, according to their hospital’s policies and protocols.
Nurses’ competencies would be reviewed on an annual basis, and nurses would verify that consulting surgeons or the trained staff is competent to do surgical central line insertions to make sure preventative measures are taken to bypass potential infections (Marschall, 2008). Parents would also be educated on risk factors before the CVC is inserted to learn how certain sterile techniques, such as cleaning hands with alcohol-based rub or soap and water, prevent infections. At Insertion: A catheter checklist is utilized to make sure all measures are taken to prevent infection when the CVC is inserted.
Proper sterile barriers are implemented: a mask prevents infection from any talking and coughing that may occur; a hat prevents hair from falling; and sterile gown and gloves keep any microorganisms that may be on your hands and clothes from crossing the sterile barrier (Raad, Hanna, & Maki, 2007). A sterile drape should cover the patient to provide additional protection against possible infection. Traffic is reduced around the sterile field, and a designated nurse observes that aseptic techniques are maintained during the procedure, reporting any changes in the aseptic technique.
Gloves are used only after hands are washed with alcohol-based rub. Chlorhexidine is used on patients older than 32 weeks of age because further research is needed on the alternative effects on the skin. Povidine-iodine is used for patients under the age of 32 weeks. (Miller-Hoover & Small, 2009). After Insertion: The catheter needs to be reevaluated on a daily basis to prevent infection. Nurse must use sterile maximum barriers when administering medication through the catheter injection port, changing IV tubing, and change dressing.
Central venous catheters are usually cared and maintained by nurses, so nurses are accountable for following all the sterile technique measures when administering medications, changing IV tubing, and changing dressing (Sharpe, 2009). Nurses must assess the needs of the catheter on a routine basis to prevent CLABSI. Without proper care, a catheter can cause the development of sepsis, which leads to a spike in the mortality rate. Nurses are accountable for proper documentation of the central line site for skin integrity.
In addition, nurses and other health care professionals must have good sanitary hygiene and create a sterile environment when interacting with patients. Preventing CLABSI all starts with proper care by healthcare professionals, but it also occurs as nurses educate the patients, their families, and their fellow peers on how to avoid infection. In conclusion, central venous catheters are one of the leading causes of infection in hospitals. The AHRQ has published guidelines and regulations to help nurses in their responsibilities to treat patients.
These guidelines include the use of a catheter checklist, sufficient training of the nursing staff, and most importantly, and the creation of a maximum sterile barrier for the patient. Using the correct antiseptic based on age of the infant and proper hygiene by health professionals can make a large difference in hospitals where patients are prone to infections. Overall, it is the nurse’s responsibility to prevent infection by maintaining a sterile environment with a mask, cap, patient drape, and other barriers. With proper care and diligence, patient safety becomes an utmost priority.
Crime in the Information Age my essay help uk: my essay help uk
It’s not difficult to gauge what the popular notions of crime in the United States are. Engage in any polite conversation over dinner or cocktails and one is likely to hear similar themes: “crime is out of control, it’s just not the same world we grew up in, it’s not safe to walk down the street anymore, it’s a mean world out there,” etc. The underlying theme that can be drawn from these notions is fear. There is a widespread conception that crime is a rampant problem in this country and that violent crime and others are on the rise.
However, these beliefs are not supported at all by the facts, even those put forth by our own law enforcement agencies. So why then, are most Americans so concerned with the threat of violent crime in particular? While the answer to this question is a complex one involving many contributors, the focus of this essay is concerned with the impact of popular media on these perceptions, because the media, it would seem, is one of the most influential contributors to the social construction of crime in this country.
The coverage of crime, and particularly violent crime, in the news media has increased in frequency of coverage and sensationalized reporting despite statistical proof that violent crime has been decreasing for many years. This phenomenon is of great concern because how we arrive at our perceptions of our world should be critically examined so policy solutions react to truth not manipulated reality.
As of 2001 homicides made up one to two-tenths of one percent of all arrests, yet made up 27-29% of crime coverage on the nightly news (Dorfman and Schiraldi). Still one of the most shocking statistics from Dorfman and Schiraldi’s study states that, “Crime coverage has increased while real crime rates have fallen. While homicide coverage was increasing on the network news by 473% from 1990 to 1998, homicide arrests dropped 32. 9% from 1990 to 1998. We can see one indication of the effects of this unrealistic reporting in 1994 when, for example, in a Washington Post/ABC poll respondents named crime as their number one concern (far more than any other issue) with 65 percent of those who responded as such saying that they learned about this issue from the media (Jackson and Naureckas). The fact is, however, that violent crime has been on the decrease for roughly thirteen years and is estimated to be at a roughly thirty year low (U. S. Department of Justice). The following graph rom the Department of Justice shows a dramatic decrease in the rates of violent crime beginning in the early nineties: ? The National Criminal Victimization Survey, which is conducted differently than the more common Uniform Crime Reports, shows a decrease in violent as well as property crimes in the United States for more than a decade (qtd. in Torny 118). The evidence seems to be overwhelming; no matter what the method used for measuring crime rates there is an obvious decrease in crime, especially with respect to violent crime in the United States.
These are just a couple of the statistics researchers and academics have compiled over recent years addressing the discrepancy between media coverage of crime and actual crime statistics. So in light of these multiple studies using different methods, how and why is it that media coverage of violent crime has grown exponentially? Surette explains that crime is both an individual and cultural product (237). There is a correlation between media consumption and support for more harsh criminal justice policies and perceptions of the “mean-world view” (Surette 196).
This supports the theory that the more news a person consumes, particularly television news, the less they know about the actual state of the world. Surette explains that while the media certainly does have an impact it is not the only factor in creating this culture of the fear of crime and impacts those who live in a more isolated environment and consume higher levels of media (200). He also notes that research suggests that those who watch a good deal of television have trouble differentiating between the television world and the real world (204).
The media has a “relationship with fear” that can correlate with fear fore some viewers (Surette 206). One example of this “relationship with fear” that the media seems to have can be found in a 1994 article in “US News and World Report” where the authors, despite noting briefly that violent crime by all statistical accounts is actually down, names the previous year as “the scariest year in American history” seeming to assert that the numbers don’t matter (Jackson and Naureckas).
The article also makes a good point about the contradiction between perceptions of crime and the reality of crime: “the drumbeat of news coverage [that] has made it seem that America is in the midst of its worst epidemic of violence ever. That sense is not supported by the numbers” (Jackson and Naureckas). Throughout the rest of the article similar contradictions abound and it is difficult to tell exactly what conclusion should be drawn from it. The causes of crime, as with most crime reporting, are not dealt with in the article while “random violence” is examined closely (Jackson and Naureckas).
Most violent crime is perpetrated by someone whom the victim knows yet the theme of “random violence receives much more attention in the media (Jackson and Naureckas). The US News piece illustrates how the media engages in a form of “doublethink” where despite knowledge of factual evidence indicating a decrease in crime they continue to put forth images that depict violent crime as an epidemic and continue to support perceptions of fear, distrust, and cynicism. This fear mongering often plays into preconceived notions of crime and violence such as racism, ageism, and classism held by some.
A 2001 study by Dorfman and Schiraldi found that crimes against African Americans were underrepresented in reporting and overrepresented as perpetrators, white victims tended to receive more lengthy coverage as well. In Los Angeles television news African Americans were 22% more likely to be shown on TV committing violent crimes than non-violent ones despite the fact that arrest reports indicate that African Americans in Los Angeles commit both types of crime almost equally (Dorfman and Schiraldi).
The study also shows how youths are also disproportionately covered: 7 out of 10 local TV news stories dealing with violent crime in California had youths as the perpetrators despite the fact that youths commit only 14. 4% of violent crime in that state. Furthermore, half of the stories dealing with minors for any reason involved violence even though only 2% (though due to unreported crimes the actual number may be higher) of California youths have been victims or perpetrators of violent crime (Drofman and Schiraldi).
The study also found by looking at news reports over the last decade that in Hawaii there has bee a 30 fold increase in the number of youth crime stories despite a steady decrease in youth crime over that same time period. This increased focus on youth crimes has led to increased support for treating juvenile offenders as adults and, especially in instances of more serious crimes, applying the same retributive punishments previously not applied to young offenders (Glassner 73). These findings show how not only are the media’s sensationalized reporting of crime contributing to a false sense or reality for many people, but are also einforcing stereotypes and bigotry. Utilizing these preconceived ideas also intensifies the impact of fear based coverage. This sense of fear that the media is able to conjure up in certain situations can easily be manipulated by politicians and policymakers looking to gain some support. According to Glassner, the more fearful people are of crime the more likely they are to support more punitive justice systems instead of rehabilitation programs. This is especially true with respect to juvenile offenders (72).
Glassner further argues that it is interesting that as we cut into funding for educational, medical, and antipoverty programs we begin to grow more concerned about crime and there seems to be what he calls “unacknowledged guilt” about why crime now seems inevitable (72). While the media is often the target of criticism and blame it has been argued that largely the media mirrors public opinion and can be controlled by it (Gans 76). There is evidence however that particularly brutal crimes or large amounts of coverage of crime can shift public opinion somewhat.
For example, polls show an increase in support for the death penalty following news of horrifying crimes (Gans 76). Gans believes that despite the fact that the news media is often thought of as having more power than it actually does it may have long-term effects on public opinion (88). So, even though the media of course cannot shift public opinion overnight in the long run a shift in coverage of sensationalized crime coverage can have long lasting effects of the political climate around crime policy.
If the tone of the media is largely controlled by previously held notions of media consumers then how might the news media correct the public when it’s beliefs are erroneous? Chiricos examines the effect of “moral panics” which something or someone becomes defined as a threat to societal values or norms (2). Moral panics are signaled by a rapid increase in the volume of media reporting and are often followed by political action as the public feels that “something must be done” (Chiricos 60). Every so often crime and violence becomes the subject of a moral panic in America.
Chiricos examines two moral panics occurring in the early to mid nineties: crack cocaine and violent crime. Both of these stories where covered in much the same way: as inner-city problems leaving the ghettos and threatening the middle-class way of life (63). When this issue was framed as a direct threat to suburban America a moral panic followed. When crime was confined to urban areas and “ghettos” there was little to worry about until the perception became that crack and violence was spreading into areas that were considered to be “safe”.
During this time 49 percent of Americans then said that crime was the most important issue facing the country compared to only 9 percent before the moral panic began to set in (Chiricos 64). The panic was further compounded by reports that these issues were spreading to children which Chiricos notes is a common component of the rise of a moral panic (65). The reaction to these panics was unsurprising. Panics are viewed as sudden problems and treated with fundamentally inappropriate solutions such as sending more people to prison and building more of them (Chiricos 67).
Following moral panics, according to Chiricos, “commands” are issued by the public (71). The policy ramifications from these moral panics included 9. 7 billion dollars for more prisons, California’s three strikes program, and various repressive laws aimed at adults and children alike in many states (Chiricos 71). These examinations of the media’s relationship with public opinion point out how in this age of information the media is an important factor in how we carry out our democracy and decide what issues are important.
If this has become the case than there are serious concerns for how the media is serving democracy. Lawrence sees the media as an arena where problems are constructed and there is constant struggle between elites, groups, and the public seek to define and address problems (3). What constitutes a problem is socially constructed. This is also true of crime problems. Lawrence is concerned with how problems are socially constructed in the media because when something is defined as a problem facing the country power is conferred upon the social institutions we would likely look to deal with it (5).
So, in the arena of the media if crime is framed by elites as stemming from the degradation of society or loss of opportunities for many people then programs and institutions organized for supporting the poor and communities will be empowered. However, the usual winners in this clash of frames typically define crime as an epidemic problem fueled by a justice system which is too soft on criminals. With this frame politicians must appear “tough on crime” and power is given to more punitive crime control policies and the prison-industrial complex flourishes as more and more money is spent on warehousing offenders.
This further disempowers social welfare institutions as money spent on police and prisons cannot be spent on education, healthcare, or welfare programs. This struggle to define problems can be looked at as a clash of differing realities where vastly different takes on issues exist but one is adopted by the media and then disseminated to the public (Lawrence 5). Lawrence says that the prevailing reality held by the most successful definers typically comes from officials within the government (5).
There exists a close relationship between government officials and the news media. They are the primary definers and therefore the strongest factor in how we construct the reality of crime (Lawrence 5). This is unhealthy because, with the issue of crime in particular, officials are quick to define crime as an epidemic issue filled with fearful imagery and then act against criminals in draconian ways. When they construct a reality where they are needed to protect their constituents justice in harmed for the sake of political capital.
This manipulation of reality and fear for the sake of power is addressed by Entman but with respect to the war on terror instead of crime and justice. He argues that the elite exert control by hegemony and indexing (4). Hegemony refers to the way officials release only information that supports the narrow reality that they seek to perpetuate and indexing is how the media reflect this narrow debate among elites quite closely (Entman 5). With this control over public perception it is relatively easy for officials to frame issues such as crime or terrorism.
When they win the battle to define a problem obvious remedies arise. If terrorism is framed as an attack on our way of life rather than a consequence of our projection of power across the globe then it follows that the remedy is defense and war. Similarly, if elites succeed in defining crime not as a consequence of lost economic opportunities but as a result of naturally deviant personalities then the reaction that follows is to lock up these defective personalities and isolate them from the rest of “normal” society. The way in which we think about various issues and problems directly affects how we deal with them.
Most in society would say that the solution to problems is obvious because it is. What is missed however is the fact that how we think about problems can completely shift the ways in which we deal with them. In order to change policy then the first step is to change the perceptions and the reality surrounding it for officials and the public alike. Lakoff tells us that if we can reframe issues we can create social change (XV). When we change the way the public sees the world, largely through the media, and alter that perceived reality we can change the policies that follow.
So why then does the media seem to be so concerned with violent crime and creating feelings of fear and anxiety in its consumers? The reason seems to be sensationalized journalism meant to increase viewership and a system where officials control our perceptions through the media. It needs to be understood that passive consumption of the media is unhealthy and we should think critically about how reality is constructed by elites and the media because, that subjective reality directly affects the solutions that are used to deal with our problems.
While so many people are given the impression that crime is rampant the underreported fact is that crime has been decreasing for many years. In order for there to be rational crime control policy in the United States we need to have accurate information about the reality of crime in this country. In order for this to happen the media must provide an accurate depiction of crime that is constructed by a fair debate in the public arena of the media. There is a lot at stake in how we perceive the world around us and how we think about crime and punishment.
Descriptive Essay Domestic Violence best college essay help: best college essay help
The abuser makes them feel worthless and insane using mind control such as verbal put-downs and violent threats which ultimately end in battering. Because she knows it has physically happened before, she is in constant fear of it happening again, at any moment. Therefore, she is in a seemingly chaotic and never-ending tale of abuse. Like a puppet, she feels as if she is helpless and completely controlled. He contorts her emotions, bends her self-worth, and isolates her away from the world. The cycle begins. For instance, a simple disagreement could cause an argument which then builds into a verbal fight with raised voices and clenched fists.
The abuser get’s very loud and hostile, building with anger as the fight grows with tension. The woman gets angry, too, but her anger is usually a direct result from the fear and humiliation of the relationship in whole. She may try to walk away from the conflict, thinking this will help both him and her by means of temporary separation. This almost always results in an undoubting haze of tattered resentment and rage. He, then, -with his ego relying on the fact that he has complete control over her- perceives this as a blow to his ego and all at once snaps. He goes into an insane and uncontrollable frenzy and loses all means of self-control.
Hitting, punching, choking, slamming her against walls, ripping out her jewelry, aggressively grabbing her inappropriately, and battering her with blunt objects. These are just minor few of the numerous acts abusers inflict on there victims. He’s like a ticking time bomb and he always has an excuse to why he went off. He may later apologize for such actions, or he may just blame her for “making” him act in such a way. She begins to doubt herself and even starts to believe the lies he feeds her. In many abusive relationships, the woman does truly love her abuser.
She doesn’t understand how the man that she fell in love with has radically changed in demeanor and personality in whole. It’s as if he is now a completely different being then who she loved before. She cries herself to sleep every night and beds herself with the devil. She has lost everything she has ever achieved in her life. She feels unworthy and repetitively degraded. The hopelessness that has been planted into her life has grown into an overbearing weight and it torments her every waking (and dreaming) moment. Misery becomes her normal and she eventually gives up on ever feeling as she once did.
The victim constantly has to lie to family members and friends in result of all the physical harm re-appearing on her body. When people start to get suspicious or ask further questions, the victim will often separate herself from the situation and sometimes ultimately cutting off all contact with those persons. Domestic violence often leads to death if not stopped. Intervening in this type of relationship is crucial to the battered victim. The intense magnitude of depression and despair caused by the abuse can ultimately lead the depleted victim to commit suicide. Abusive relationships never have and never will end well.
The short-term and long-term effects of domestic violence are severe and sometimes permanent. The psychological impact on victims of domestic violence can be so awful that it sometimes has irreversible trauma and can result in various kinds of mental illness. Survivors of abusive relationships have emotional disadvantages and trust issues. But in time, the lucky ones who got out and got away heal. The abuser always has a chance of going off the deep end and exceeding the limits of past abuse. He will eventually take the level of battering a little higher each time, exerting his anger even more every fight.
This, in due time, will, if not completely stopped, lead to the death of someone’s loved one. It could very easily be your daughter, your sister, your mother, your friend. It could one day be you. The first step is intervening. They need someone to rely on and help them through this distressing, painful event in there life. They can be free from the chains of abuse. Their broken spirits and scarred worth can be rejuvenated. But they need help. They cannot do it on there own. Don’t ignore the signs. Put an end to domestic violence.
The Gilligan-Kohlberg Moral Theory Controversy popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
Feminist ethics explores the fundamental effect of this imbalance on moral philosophy and seeks to rectify it. So the questions we face are: Do women have a distinct moral perspective? How if at all is gender relevant to moral theory? Questions such as these will be answered in this essay. The concept of morality has long been one of intense interest and debate for many disciplines, from ancient philosophy to contemporary psychology. However, it could be questioned the extent to which we have developed in terms of understanding such an abstract entity.
Carol Gilligan follows the cognitive developmental models of Lawrence Kohlberg in her argument concerning female morality, yet can her perspective be supported, or does her theoretical model raise broader issues surrounding the explanation of moral thought and behavior? According to Gilligan, the model of a distinct female moral development is in response to the lack of attention paid to women in previous models of moral development, namely Kohlberg. I want to begin by comparing two well-known scholars and their debate, Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg.
My purpose here is to review the Gilligan-Kohlberg controversy and show the relevance of gender diversity in moral theory. I will discuss some of the implicit and explicit philosophical differences between Gilligan’s and Kohlberg’s out-looks and will then illustrate that Gilligan’s claims that women have a distinctive moral voice cannot be fully justified. Lawrence Kohlberg, born in 1927, taught at Harvard University where he taught both education and social psychology. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development are the stages in thinking about right and wrong that everyone goes through growing up.
Each stage builds on the one before so you have to go through them in order. There were six stages (three levels): avoiding punishment, self-interest, good boy attitude, law and order morality, social contract, and principle. The first level of moral thinking, “pre-conventional,” is generally found at the elementary school level. In the first stage of this level, people behave according to socially acceptable norms because they are told to do so by some authority figure (e. g. , parent or teacher). This obedience is compelled by the threat or application of punishment.
The second stage of this level is characterized by a view that right behavior means acting in one’s own best interests. The second level of moral thinking, “conventional,” is generally found in society. The first stage of this level (stage 3) is characterized by an attitude, which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others. The second stage is one oriented to abiding by the law and responding to the obligations of duty. The third level of moral thinking, “post-conventional,” is one that Kohlberg felt is not reached by the majority of adults.
Its first stage (stage 5) is an understanding of social mutuality and a genuine interest in the welfare of others. The last stage (stage 6) is based on respect for universal principle and the demands of individual conscience. While Kohlberg always believed in the existence of Stage 6 and had some nominees for it, he could never get enough subjects to define it, much less observe their longitudinal movement to it. Gilligan (“In a Different Voice) challenges Kohlberg’s “stage theory” of moral development.
Carol Gilligan, born in 1936, received her doctrine then taught at Harvard University, where she became Kohlberg’s research assistant. Gilligan argued that by building his model on a sample of men, Kohlberg had failed to include the perspectives of women, and further, had relegated women to the status of deviants from the norm. According to Gilligan, she thinks that men are characteristically concerned with practical moral matters of justice and that women are more often concerned with the moral matters of care. Gilligan suggested, “Women spoke a language which was not decodable by Kohlberg’s system. She thought that women were fundamentally unheard in the Kohlberg’s methodology. In 1977 Carol Gilligan challenged Kohlberg’s model in saying that there was sex bias. In conducting interviews for a project with Kohlberg, Gilligan found what she called “a different voice,” the perspective, voiced mainly by women, that morality was not defined by justice, fairness, or universal rights, as Kohlberg argued. Instead, this perspective described morality based on care, on responsibility to others, on the continuity of interdependent relationships.
When one begins with the study of women and derives developmental constructs from their lives, the outline of a moral conception different from that described by Freud, Piaget, or Kohlberg begins to emerge and informs a different description of development. In this conception, the moral problem arises from conflicting responsibilities rather than from competing rights and requires for its resolution a mode of thinking that is contextual and narrative rather than formal and abstract.
This conception of morality as concerned with the activity of care centers moral development around the understanding of responsibility and relationships, just as the conception of morality as fairness ties moral development to the understanding of rights and rules (Gilligan, 1982). Gilligan illustrated this view as a morality of care and argued that it was a distinct moral orientation, not just one of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. She believed that this orientation resulted in different reasoning and ways of resolving moral conflict situations.
Kohlberg’s response to Gilligan was to recognize the significance of distinguishing the concept of morality, which focuses on special relationships and obligations, but to deny that it was a distinct moral orientation. He saw it as an addition rather than alternative to justice solutions. We believe that Gilligan’s distinction between a morality of care and a morality of justice is a distinction held in the minds of all human beings… However, these two senses of the word moral do not represent two different moral orientations existing at the same level of generality and validity.
We see justice as both rational and implying an attitude of empathy. It is for this reason that we make the following proposal: i. e. that there is a dimension along which various moral dilemmas and orientations can be placed. Personal moral dilemmas and orientations of specials obligation, as we have just discussed them, represent one end of this dimension and the standard hypothetical justice dilemmas and justice orientation represent the other end (Kohlberg, Levine, and Hewer, 1983). Therefore, Kohlberg expanded his view of morality to include obligations based on special relationships.
Gilligan maintained that a primary concern with morality as care often extended beyond ties of family and close friendships. According to Gilligan, the process of defining a moral conflict was crucial to understanding ones moral reasoning (Gilligan, 1982). Reviewing Kohlberg’s methodology, Gilligan critiqued his hypothetical dilemmas presupposed a definition of morality as justice and were biased towards justice-based resolutions. Gilligan, along with other researchers, developed an interview to determine the different types of moral reasoning.
The interview is designed to permit an interaction between two people that makes it possible to present as fully as possible how one of them thinks about some important issues… Thus the set of questions put to a person in an interview is designed to allow the person to present his or her thinking and to elaborate the ways between two people. For the interviewer, two things are necessary: (1) to listen, that is, to follow the train of thinking of the person interviewed; and (2) to have – as Piaget suggests – some directing hypothesis to guide the probing (Lyons, 1984).
The objective of the interview was to explore the hypothesis that men and women define moral issues differently and use different bases on which they reason them out. Results found showed that Gilligan’s thesis that two distinct moral orientations were significantly related to gender. In both of the studies, the ethics of care predominated in female thinking and the ethics of justice predominated in the male thinking. Most of Gilligan’s work focused on her views of the care – justice distinction. It is an argument that many men and women find very appealing.
However, in conducting her hypothesis, she developed a methodological innovation. Since she used open-minded interview questions about real life dilemmas, the participants were able to define morality in the context of their own lives. Because of this methodological approach, Gilligan was able to “hear” the voices of women and men describing their own experience of moral conflict. These provided the data for her articulation of “a different voice”. Gilligan’s method is less biased than Kohlberg’s in that it enables people to provide their own moral dilemmas as the basis for examining their reasoning.
However, a third argument has come into play. Carol Stack found errors in her findings of Gilligan. Stack argues persuasively for a greater understanding of relative factors in defining gender identity. Her appeal does not contradict Gilligan’s criticism of Kohlberg, but takes it a step further. Gilligan’s theory of women’s moral development has taken root in native soil. It is a powerful and persuasive theory that derives a female model of moral development from the moral reasoning of primarily white, middle-class women in the United States.
The model fits the data, and it fits the conceptualizations of many feminist researchers. However as black and third-world feminist researchers have emphasized, gender is a construct shaped by the experience of race, class, culture, caste, and consciousness. Feminist research must contribute another dimension to the construction of feminist theory: it should provide a critical framework for analyzing gender consciousness and a cautionary reminder to those theorists who think that gender construction is the same in all societies (Stack, 1986).
With that perspective being revealed, Gilligan now appears to be in the same trap as Kohlberg. Both Gilligan and Kohlberg have major criticisms in their studies conducted. While gathering empirical research, a sample is selected to represent the larger population. How the population is described and how the sample is chosen are important to the conclusions made about the research gatherings. For instance, if Kohlberg’s population norm is “people like us,” and that is what we believe, then we will relegate people that are “not like us. Kohlberg’s norm was men, and later on women were taken into account and measured as “others. ” Gilligan’s norms were white, educated, middle-class women. When researchers see themselves as the norm, those who do not fall under that category are different and become the “other. ” In this case, the people that do not categorize under the norm, their voices are not considered important enough to acknowledge. The words may be physically heard, but the import of them is dismissed as insignificant.
Listening to women’s views and trying to tie them into the research model does not mean that all women think in the same way, nor does it mean that all women have been left out. Throughout the research, it indicates within the models, methods, and in our society as a whole, it is hard to understand and translate the experiences. Gilligan argues, in regards to moral reasoning, that those experiences can be heard by listening more carefully to women. On the other hand, listening to men share their experiences are hard to hear also within the context of narrowly defined frameworks of moral development.
The lesson is not that all women are caring, but in this development to exclude women’s experience, a type of reasoning and expression has also been excluded which is also an aspect of men’s thinking. Summing up care as a form of moral reasoning does not authorize the idea that all women are the same and engage in caring resolutions. In general, it gives an overall better understanding of the reasoning of people. With that being said, both men and women practice the act of caring. In conclusion, I feel that Gilligan’s claims that women have a distinctive moral voice cannot be fully justified.
Gilligan is on the right track when she writes about the dual context of morality and moral maturity. Nevertheless Gilligan is wrong in the respect that she thinks, like Kohlberg, that these matters can be proven by empirical research and data. Men and women across various cultures appear to have the capacity to adopt either the justice or care driven approach to moral dilemmas, yet there does not appear to be a fixed pattern or system of thought. Regardless of whether her theory of female moral development is accurate, Carol Gilligan’s work helped to encourage the field of psychology to include women and girls in studies and theories.
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Canadian producer and distributor of outdoor lighting fixtures. Its fixture is distributed throughout North America and has been in high demand for several years. The company operates three plants that manufacture the fixture and distribute it to five distribution centers. During the past few years, A-C has seen a major drop in demand for its fixture as the housing market has declined.
Based on the forecast of interest rates, the head of operations feels that demand for housing and thus for its product will remain depressed for the foreseeable future.
A-C is considering closing one of its plants, as it is now operating with a forecasted excess capacity of 34,000 units per week. The forecasted weekly demands for the coming year are as follow: Warehouse.
Plant 3 on overtime6,000 units If A-C shuts down any plants any plants, its weekly costs will change, as fixed costs are lower for a non-operating plant. Table 1 shows production costs at each plant, both variable at regular time and overtime, and fixed when operating and shut down.
Table 2 shows distribution costs from each plant to each distribution center. Table
Scenarios of Labor Relations in Bangladesh essay help services: essay help services
In the context of Bangladesh, one can say that the country is not too poorly served by labour laws and their regulations on the employers. Trade union practices providing collective bargaining of workers with their employers are generally allowed in the industries and services here. Labour courts in Bangladesh promote and protect workers’ rights and enforce laws such as compensation to be paid to workers by employers for the breach of labour laws on their part.
Bangladesh is a signatory nation associated to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and remains committed on the whole to ILO policies. However, trade union practices in Bangladesh seem to be in existence in the country’s older industries and services with new ones-particularly the export oriented garments industries-remaining largely unserved by trade unions. But there are also powerful arguments in favour of such exemptions. The garments industries could never have come to their present number or employ the record number of workers as they do, if they were burdened by demands from workers and lost their competitiveness as a result.
The example of the garments industries also demonstrates that it should be a prudent course for eligible workers in this country to first find employment in sectors like the garments industries than to restrict the flourishment of such emerging work opportunities by attempting to introduce trade unions in them too early in the day (The New Nation, 2004). It should be advantageous for workers to put less emphasis first on orthodox trade union practices and accept less regulation on the employers so that they feel encouraged to expand business activities.
This should maximise employment creation which should go in the favour of unemployed workers when unemployment is a huge problem in Bangladesh. More employment and some income should be a better choice for the country’s workforce with its vast number of unemployed than no employment and no income from too much of trade unionism. Thus, there is a need for responsible trade unionism in the country if there exists a genuine interest among workers’ leaders to best advance the longer term interests of their followers. Of course, it is not meant that pressure for better looking after the welfare needs of workers ught not to be there when the new enterprises graduate into stronger entities and, thus, become able to smoothly accommodate reasonable demands from their workers (The New Nation, 2004). Many of the country’s garments industries, for instance, would not lose their competitiveness or experience any major reduction in their profits or the control over their workers by allowing the workers certain basic rights, such as a weekly holiday, casual leave, a bearable increase in their wages and safe conditions of work in the factories (The New Nation, 2004).
From the government’s side, the role expected most is imparting of training and education free of cost to workers. The same should increase their productivity and skills which would be invaluable assets in the work places. Governments in many countries play the desired role of training and educating as many workers as possible and look upon government spending on these areas as long term investment on economic growth. The Government in Bangladesh needs to adopt and pursue vigorously similar policies (The New Nation, 2004). . 2. Trade union rights in law: 2. 2. 1. Many restrictions: The Constitution provides for the right to form or join unions. There are many restrictions, however. Before a union can be registered, 30 per cent of workers in an enterprise have to be members and the union can be dissolved if its membership falls below this level. The ILO has informed the government that this is a clear barrier to freedom of association and recommended the law be amended, but that advice has been continuously ignored.
Unions must have government approval to be registered, and no trade union action can be taken prior to registration. Unions can only be formed at the factory/establishment level, with some exceptions (such as private road transport, private inland river transport, tea, jute bailing, bidi production) where union formation can take place based on geographic area. There can be no more than three registered trade unions in any establishment.
Membership in a union is restricted only to workers currently working at an establishment, meaning that severance from employment also results in the end of a worker’s membership in the union. Candidates for union office have to be current or former employees of an establishment or group of establishments. The Registrar of Trade Unions has wide powers to interfere in internal union affairs. He can enter union premises and inspect documents. The registrar may also cancel the registration of a union, with Labour Court approval (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 2. Exclusions from union membership: Under the Industrial Relations Ordinance (IRO), workers in the public sector and state enterprises may not belong to a trade union, with the exception of railway, postal and telecommunications workers. Members of the security forces are also denied the right to form unions. Teachers are also forbidden to form trade unions, in either the public or private sector. Managerial and administrative employees can form welfare associations, but they are denied the right to join a union (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 3. Right to strike not recognized: The right to strike is not specifically recognised in law. Three quarters of a union’s members must agree to a strike before it can go ahead. The government can ban any strike if it continues beyond 30 days (in which case it is referred to the Labour Court for adjudication), if it involves a public service covered by the Essential Services Ordinance or if it is considered a threat to the national interest. In this last case, the 1974 Special Powers Act can be used to detain trade unionists without charge.
The government may ban strikes for renewable periods of three months. Sentences of up to 14 years’ forced labour can be passed for offences such as “obstruction of transport”. Strikes are not allowed in new establishments either owned by foreign investors or established as joint-ventures in collaboration with foreign investors for a period of three years from the date the establishment begins commercial production (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 4.
Compulsory conciliation and court referral procedures: The labour law requires that parties to an industrial dispute must follow procedures (such as request conciliation, serve notice of a strike or lock-out, or refer the dispute to the Labour Court for settlement) within a specified period or the labour dispute will be considered legally terminated. The issue or subject of an industrial dispute which is terminated in this manner cannot be raised for a calendar year after such termination (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). . 2. 5. Collective bargaining limited: Only registered unions can engage in collective bargaining, and each union must nominate representatives to a Collective Bargaining Authority committee, which is subject to approval by the Registrar of Trade Unions. The National Pay and Wages Commission, whose recommendations are binding, sets public sector workers’ pay levels and other benefits (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 6.
EPZ Law – significant restrictions continue: The EPZ Trade Union and Industrial Relations Bill 2004 provided for the formation of trade unions in EPZs from 1 November 2006. The ILO Committee on Freedom of Association recommended numerous amendments to the law to bring it into compliance with Conventions no. 87 and 98 which Bangladesh has ratified. The government of Bangladesh has fundamentally failed to take any appreciable steps to comply with the ILO CFA’s ruling.
The law foresees the phased introduction of freedom of association, providing for a different type of workers’ organisation at each stage. However, the law does not go so far as to say that trade unions with full associational rights will be allowed to exist in EPZs after the last stage outlined, which will be after 1 November 2008 (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 6. Stage one – worker representation and welfare committees: Until the end of October, workers in Bangladesh’s EPZs were still operating under the first stage of the law.
They were only allowed to set up Worker Representation and Welfare Committees (WRWC). The law requires all enterprises in the EPZ to have one WRWC, whose elected representatives have the power to negotiate and sign collective agreements on a limited set of topics but not to strike or organise demonstrations. However, workers and labour activists in Bangladesh reported that in 2006 employers generally refused to enter negotiations or sign an agreement with a WRWC. Under the law, all WRWCs were supposed to cease to exist on 31 October 2006, unless he employer gave an explicit agreement that the WRWC should continue (which they would in practice only do in the case of compliant WRWCs). (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 7. Stage two – workers’ associations: The second stage of the law provides that a trade union, referred to as a Workers’ Association (WA) in the law, can be organised provided over 30 per cent of the workforce requests that the association should be set up. More than 50 per cent of the workers in the factory must vote affirmatively for the WA to be formed.
This was scheduled to start on 1 November 2006 but in practice there were significantly delays, notably because the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA) did not provide the necessary forms for applying to set up WAs. In new enterprises that start operations after 1 November 2006, workers are not permitted to form an association for the first three months after the commencement of commercial activities. Only one federation can be formed per EPZ, and over 50 per cent of the registered WA in the zone must vote to affiliate before a federation can be formed.
The BEPZA Executive Chairman also has almost unlimited authority to deregister a Workers’ Association, should he determine that the WA has committed an “unfair practice”, contravened any part of the WA’s own constitution, violated any aspect of the EPZ Law, or failed to submit a report to him. Essentially, the law has made illegal the right of workers to talk about unions in their workplaces or to engage in pressure tactics to persuade recalcitrant employers to sign a collective agreement.
Finally, the law explicitly forbids any strikes in the EPZs until 31 October 2008. (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 8. Frequent bans on assembly: The law allows the government to ban any public gathering of more than four people, ostensibly only in cases where “public order” or “public health” are at risk. In fact, the government applied this banning power much more indiscriminately. (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 2. 9.
Labour appellate tribunal created: The new labour law created an avenue for all the judgements, awards and sentences of the Labour Court to be appealed to a Labour Appellate Tribunal. Previously all such appeals had to be taken up by the Supreme Court, resulting in significant delays in reaching a final legal verdict for labour cases (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. Trade union rights in practice: The trade union movement is relatively weak in Bangladesh.
This is partly owing to the multiplicity of trade unions and partly owing to the considerable intimidation imposed in practice, especially workers’ fear of losing their jobs should they show any sign of union activity. The right to freedom of association and to collective bargaining at the workplace is not respected in the garment sector or on the tea estates. Where unions do file applications for recognition, their registration is often delayed long beyond the 60 days foreseen by law. 2. 3. 1.
Strike bans: The government makes regular use of the Essential Services Ordinance in order to ban strikes. The government’s use of this order was continuously applied over the past four years to the Power Development Board, the Dhaka Electric Supply Authority, the Chittagong Port Authority, Biman Airlines, and the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 2. Restrictions on bargaining and union meetings: Since 2003, the government has banned any collective bargaining in jute mills during production time.
Only pro-government supporters are allowed to hold meetings during work time and unions not affiliated with the government’s labour grouping are not allowed to hold protests even on their day off (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 3. Employers take advantage of legal loopholes: Private sector workers are discouraged from undertaking any union activity. The Industrial Relations Ordinance gives considerable leeway for discrimination against union members and organisers by employers.
Workers who try to create a trade union are not protected before registration and are therefore often persecuted by their employers, sometimes by violent means or with the help of the police. The names of workers who apply for union registration are frequently passed on to employers who promptly transfer or dismiss them, particularly in the textile sector. Even after registration, workers suspected of carrying out trade union activities are regularly harassed. One popular ploy is to dismiss a worker for misconduct, as they are then no longer entitled to become a trade union officer.
A complaint to the Labour Court is of little use given the underlying corruption and serious backlog of cases which, in some instances, can stretch back more than several years (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 4. Export processing zones – anti-union employers: Employers in the EPZs have been consistently hostile towards trade unions, claiming that many of the companies would be ruined and jobs would be lost if they had to have unions.
Some employers in the zones take advantage of the absence of trade unions to commit violations of international labour standards, such as sexual harassment, physical violence, unpaid overtime, child labour, non-compliance with minimum wage regulations and deplorable safety conditions. Despite protections for WRWC committee members provided by the EPZ Law, discrimination against leaders of active WRWCs was reported in 2006, and an undetermined yet significant number of these leaders and activist members have been terminated with permission from the BEPZA in processes that workers claimed were biased and unfair.
Since there is no dispute resolution mechanism or tribunal for workers, except to appeal to the BEPZA, workers in the EPZs had few other options but to protest. After 1 November 2006, those factories with WRWCs turned their attention to frustrating efforts of the workers to form Workers Associations, again employing a series of tactics including harassment, intimidation, and termination of leaders (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 5.
Failure to set up industrial dispute resolution mechanisms in EPZs: Although the EPZ law provides for the establishment of an EPZ Labour Tribunal and an EPZ Labour Appellate Tribunal, a full two years after the passage of the EPZ law, these two tribunals have yet to be established (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 6. Garment industry anti-union: Textile workers outside the zones fare no better. An estimated two million women workers toil for 3,300 employers to make clothes for export in Bangladesh. Workers are regularly sacked, beaten or subjected to false charges by the police for being active in unions.
The General Secretary of the United Federation of Garment Workers (UGFW) has been arrested more than a dozen times. Meanwhile, the country’s garment workers are among the lowest paid in the world. They work long hours with very little leave, and face physical, verbal and sexual abuse (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 7. Employer negligence and government indifference kills hundreds of workers: Negligence by employers and the authorities have had appalling consequences that a strong, vigilant trade union could help to avoid.
Based on its analysis of publicly available sources, the respected Bangladesh Institute for Labour Studies found that in 2006 there were 845 workers killed and 3018 injured by occupational accidents. The ready-made garment sector led the way in its toll on workers, with 141 killed, and 1578 hurt or maimed (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007). 2. 3. 8. Ship recycling industry effectively prohibits unions: The Bangladeshi ship recycling industry is based at Chittagong Port. Workers are employed on an as-needs basis, have no contracts and do not sign any documents which could link them to a specific yard.
Thus workers have no legal recourse in the event of a dispute. Largely owing to the fear instilled in them – through violence and the precariousness of their employment situation – workers have no way of standing up for their rights or even claiming their dues. Any claim would provoke instant dismissal. Unions are de facto forbidden on the sites and union organisers find it very difficult to gain access (Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union: Bangladesh, 2007).
Essay over Mending Wall by Robert Frost best essay help: best essay help
Frost also expresses human emasculation when nature attacked the structures humans built that are thought to be strong and durable. Although really in reality human structures crumbles before the force of nature. In the poem through the comparison of the very different narrator and neighbor, Frost uses images of nature in dominant force that eventually destroys human endeavors, and shows the absurdity of rebuilding both literal and figurative walls that some universal force wants down.
In this poem the narrator is described as a childlike free spirit that seems to question why he and his neighbor always rebuild a wall that is torn down every year by nature. At the beginning of the poem the narrator introduces a wall: “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, / That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it” (lines 1-2). The narrator describes a thing McPhail, Courtney 2 that doesn’t love a wall as nature. The frozen ground is hard and swells as it causes the wall to become brittle. And spills the upper boulders in the sun, / And makes gaps even two can pass abreast” (lines 3-4). These lines are describing the upper boulders being damaged by the sun which causes erosion or ‘gaps’ in the structure. Also the narrator is very imaginative as stated by “That wants it down. ‘ I could say ‘Elves’ to him, / But it’s not elves exactly, and I’d rather /He said it for himself” (37-39). This also describes the narrator by saying he wants to say this to his neighbor jokingly but doesn’t because he rather the neighbor say it to him.
The neighbor is described as more private and traditional. The one thing the neighbor replies to the narrator every time he questions why they keep rebuilding the wall he states “Good fences make good neighbors. ” This shows how they are not only separating the two neighbors’ lands but also the mental walls’ neighbors put up to keep everything and everyone out. With the title of this poem being” Mending Wall” it is extremely ironic in itself. The walls humans build are built as barriers and ways to keep each other separated.
The wall brings two neighbors together when it needs to be mended; this wall separates the property lines between the two lands. The author uses the imagery of the two neighbor’s lands as representations of themselves; apples representing the narrator, while pine trees and pine cones representing the neighbor. While rebuilding the wall the narrator begins to question why only one land consists of apple trees while the other only has pine trees: “as If I could put a notion in his head: /’Why do they make good neighbors?
Isn’t it/ Where there are cows? /But here there are no cows” (29-32). The narrator is stating that he would understand the reason for a wall if one McPhail, Courtney 3 had livestock and the other didn’t but neither of them did so he felt as if the wall useless. With the mending of this wall both the narrator and the neighbor begins to look forward to it each year because it becomes their excuse to go interact with each other. With each boulder they put up they also are tearing down a mental boulder between themselves.
In conclusion Frost uses both imagery and symbolism to express that human nature not only tries to build physical walls and structures but also mental walls. As said throughout the poem ‘ good fences make good neighbors’ in essence this is a true statement as the mending of this wall between two properties forces the two neighbors together to find friendship and companionship. The narrator and the neighbor also may be building the wall year after year to renew their bonds with each other, since the narrator stated that the fence really wasn’t needed in-between their two properties.
Even though at the beginning of the poem it seems that the walls are not a good thing, the narrator makes you feel as if the walls, both physical and mental, are a good thing by the end of the poem. McPhail, Courtney 4 Work Cited Frost, Robert. “Mending Wall. ” The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. Ed. Michael Myer. 9th Ed. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 2012. 875-876.
Huella Online Travel essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
Travel faces several challenges in penetrating the Hong Kong market. While Hong Kong enjoys one of the highest Internet penetration rate in the world, its tech-savvy people are perplexingly wary of transacting business online. Huella situates itself in this kind of market, where people generally shun e-businesses, including air travel bookings, for perceiving it as a high-risk trade to seeing it as second only to the traditional marketplace.
Initial qualitative survey results culled from a focus group discussion showed that respondents never heard of the Huella brand in Hong Kong, or to a few, a vague impression of what it is. Validating earlier surveys on online transactions, respondents also perceived Huella as a risky, unreliable brand, and voiced out security concerns on Huella’s website. Huella might take comfort of the fact that such concerns were not solely directed to the company but to Internet transactions in general.
Moreover, people felt that risks are too high for any potential benefits, and that Huella was seen to be in the league of online travel agencies and not with the traditional brick-’n-mortar agents. Majority of the respondents had never used Huella’s Hong Kong website, and for a few who had heard of it, the website was a mere repository of information and a tool to compare prices for them. The initial results are useful in exploring how people perceived the Huella brand but as noted in the case study they are not conclusive of the public perception in Huella’s target market.
Given a job to map out a research marketing strategy for Huella using a quantitative approach, I believe that an objective analysis of the market should be done first and foremost, which entails knowing three key areas of the business: customers, competencies and competition. I will focus on this paper how to get an objective analysis of customers using a quantitative approach and will leave the last two areas for future discussions as they went beyond the scope of this specific assignment.
Let me stress, however, that the three are interrelated, and that selecting a specific target market has direct implications on the two areas as well. Conducting quantitative surveys means getting people to respond to certain questionnaires, which can be done in various form. For Huella, I specifically recommend doing an online survey. As a purely online business, online survey may also give us a peek of how the public responds to online strategies. However, there is a downside of doing this strategy alone.
Response rates in online surveys are low, so online surveys should be complemented by face-to-face interviews. The key in conducting any quantitative research is how the sampling is done. We have to make sure that it is conducted randomly, such that every one in Hong Kong stands a chance to be picked up and asked to complete the survey. It is also important to do a stratified random sampling so we only target people who are relevant to the business, or only to those we are targeting to sell the product.
For example, it is important to focus only on the different subgroups of the identified market. Sample size should follow known statistical laws, such that a sampling of 10,000 people for instance will give us a confidence level of 95 percent that the views reflected in the survey are accurate with an error of +/- 0. 85 percentage points. I will also recommend pilot-testing before the full-blown survey takes place to find out which types of questions do not work to people.
The New Negro Summary essay help websites: essay help websites
English II Summary In the beginning Locke tells us about “the tide of Negro migration”. During this time in a movement known as the Great Migration, thousand of African Americans also known as Negros left their homes in the South and moved North toward the beach line of big cities in search of employment and a new beginning. They left the South because of racial violence such as the Ku Klux Klan and economic discrimination not able to obtain work.
Their migration was an expression of their changing attitudes toward themselves as Locke said best From The New Negro, and has been described as “something like a spiritual emancipation. ” Many African Americans moved to Harlem, a neighborhood located in Manhattan. Back in the day Harlem became the world’s largest black community; also home to a diverse mix of cultures. Having extraordinary outbreak of inspired movement revealed their unique culture and encouraged them to discover their heritage; and becoming “the New Negro,” Also known as “New Negro Movement,” it was later named the Harlem Renaissance.
Realizing that America was not yet the racial equal country that it idealized to be, African Americans made sure to keep themselves conscious of what society would react to them. In order to create successful and meaningful literature, African American writers were forced to fully educate themselves on the government and history so as to compile accurate literature. One such writer was James Weldon Johnson; taking on the persona of a black preacher, he was able to greatly impress upon the black community how important it was to have a strong faith in God and in oneself.
Catapulting the 1920s artistic movement that created a bulk of the first major literary pieces by African Americans, Johnson was the ancestor of great men and women such as Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Wallace Thurman, and W. E. B. Du Bois. Langston Hughes is often called the poet laureate of Harlem. His poetry is an effective commentary on the adverse conditions faced by blacks in America during the 20th Century. Hughes placed a particular emphasis on Harlem, an area in New York that was predominately Black, which became a Mecca for many hopeful blacks in the first half of the 1900’s.
Hughes has a theme in most of his poetry, in other words his writing style was to write poetry that is called “dream deferred”. His use of a “dream deferred” focus in several poems paints a vivid picture of the disappointment and dismay that blacks in America faced in Harlem. Furthermore, as each his poems develop, so does the feeling behind a “dream deferred,” his words make the reader feel the growing anger and seriousness even more at each new stanza. In order to understand Hughes’ idea of the “dream deferred,” one must have a working knowledge of the history of Harlem.
It was first intended to be the home of an upper class white community, many fancy brownstones attracted wealthy whites. Between 1906 and 1910, when whites were forcing blacks out of their own homes and neighborhoods in uptown Manhattan, the blacks began to move into Harlem to create their communities again. Due to absurd racial fears, the whites in the area began to move out. Between 1910 and the early 1940’s, more blacks began flooding into the area for a safe harbor from all over the world, fleeing from the racial intolerance of the South and the economic problems of the Caribbean and Latin America.
At this point, Harlem became an entirely black area where comfort was created for all of them. Although it seemed to be a good thing, this town once filled with much potential, soon became riddled with overpopulation, exploitation, and poverty. Thus, what awaited new arrivals was not a dream; rather, it was “a dream deferred”. They began to hurt themselves without even knowing it. “Harlem”, Hughes’ first poem, clearly outlines the “dream deferred” theme, setting the pace for the poems to follow. The poem begins with, “What happens to a dream deferred? The poem explains the dream, the promise of Harlem, and what blacks hoped to find there: opportunity, improved conditions for living, and the freedom from racial intolerance. When blacks arrived in Harlem, though, their dream was deferred; instead of the opportunities they had envisioned, they were faced with congestion, mistreatment, and dearth. It is clear that at the beginning of “Harlem,” the frame of mind that accompanies “a dream deferred” is a questioning one that begins a search for characterization.
This mood, which Hughes develops as each poem progresses, encourages the reader to reflect upon the meaning of “a dream deferred,” is preparing them for its development. As the poem continues, it lists the different possible fates of a dream that unfortunately never become reality. Hughes unique poetical vision and insight is the main reason for Hughes’ prominence. He sometimes has been considered a superior poet than Countee Cullen. Since Cullen had documented his disagreements with Hughes’ poetry, many claimed that he was limited in vision.
However, Cullen did agree with Hughes’ poetical subject matter. Hughes believed, and practiced, that any aspect of life common to African-Americans was worth writing about. He stated that it was best to include Afro-speech in poetry. It is evident that in Hughes’ point of view black life was worth philosophizing about. On the other hand, Cullen did not believe that poetry should be used to describe daily life; he believed that poetry should be specifically set apart from everyday life. It was this type of perceptual limitation that set Hughes apart from other African-American poets, including Cullen.
Although his views were different, Countee Cullen was also a greatly significant personality during the Harlem Renaissance. It was said that he was an “American poet, a leading figure with Langston Hughes in the Harlem Renaissance. ” His work is also an excellent contribution to the foundation of the Renaissance. In Countee Cullen’s poem ‘If You Should Go’, he emphasizes on the understanding of human joys and sorrows, for people of all races. The use of different examples exhibits the importance of joy, such as love and dream.
Both of the stanzas include a persons feeling or reaction towards joy during happy moments as well as the feelings after the joyous moment has passed. In this poem, Cullen cleverly conveys several different messages to the reader. One of the themes of the poem is that one never realizes what he/she has until it is lost. In this case it refers to joyous moments. In the second stanza, the poet also tells the reader that joy creates an everlasting memory in a person’s mind that is then exhibited in the person’s personality or “the gleam on the [persons] face”.
Although, Cullen does not mention whom the love is directed towards in the first stanza, and neither what the dream is about in the second stanza the reader can interpret that it has been said in a positive manner. Using a classic example of metaphor, love is compared to the light that brightens a day just the way in which joys brightens people’s lives. Not only in this poem, but also in each of Cullen’s poem he displays this same ingenious writing style. Cullen’s contribution to the Harlem Renaissance is a privilege for the era.
All of the writers created an amazing outreach to the rest of the world with their different and unique pieces of work. The writers of the time period described the Negro dilemma: the problem of cultural affiliation and the inability to resolve the seamy reality of the present with the dream of ancestral homelands. They explain the paradoxical crisis of self-expression and perception, fulfillment of the white-propagated stereotype of primitivism, while corrupting their noble, yet untamed African impulses.
They suffer under the dilemma of political inefficacy, suppressing radical political impulses with the passive-resistant front of a “falsely smiling face. ” Thus, the Negro dilemma seemingly presents itself in full. The writers of the Harlem Renaissance have gracefully portrayed the truth of what the past was like for them, and people today need to recognize that they went through all of this in order to be what they are today. They are a tremendous contribution to the society of the United States today, and without them it most likely would not be as well rounded and diversified as it is now
Bacteria and Life admission college essay help: admission college essay help
What evidence do scientists have that the oxygen content of our atmosphere has increased since the earth’s origin? 3. Why is oxygen more abundant in the atmosphere today? 4. What are stromatolites? 5. What do scientists think is implied by the presence of stromatolites in Precambrian rock? 6. What is ozone and how is it produced? 7. Why is ozone important to life today? 8. What effect did increased levels of oxygen in the atmosphere have on early life forms? Banded Iron Formation (to the right of the Early Atmosphere exhibit)
What is banded iron? 2. When did these formations become common? 3. What is the significance of these formations? The Oldest Rocks: Remnants of a Youthful Earth (by the mural) 1. How old are the oldest rocks on Earth? 2. What evidence of life do these ancient rocks contain? 3. Is this evidence great enough to allow scientists to conclude that life indeed existed during this period? The Earliest Traces of Life 1. When do scientists think life originated on Earth? 2. What are the oldest fossils and how old are they? The Precambrian
When did the first cells with nuclei appear? 2. Fossils of multicellular animals are from what time period? 3. In what era did all of these events take place? Origin of Life 1. What six elements are most prevalent in living organisms? 2. Were these elements present in the infant solar system? 3. What circumstances may have fostered the development of chains of amino acids and nucleotides? 4. What are the characteristics of the ancestors of living cells, what could they “do”? 5. Why is water important to life? 6. What are the “true” hallmarks of life?
What molecular evidence do scientists have that all life is at least distantly related and has a common ancestor? 8. What conditions exist on the present day earth that make the spontaneous generation of life unlikely? 9. What conditions are thought to have existed on primitive earth that favored the origin of life? Single-celled Life 1. What are cherts? 2. How old are these fossils? 3. Were these prokaryotic or eukaryotic? 4. What evidence for eukaryotic (and possibly multicellular) life is found in the Greyson shale? 5. How old is the shale? Multi-celled Life 1. Describe the Ediacaran Fauna. 2. How old are these fossils?
Misunderstood Breed college admission essay help: college admission essay help
It has long been known that dog has been man’s best friend. They are always there to greet you when you come home, they never complain about your cooking, and you never have to lend them money. What could be better? Many people have taken dogs into their home and made them part of the family. However, there is one breed that most Americans have turned their back on despite the loyalty and heroism they have proven throughout the ages, the American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT). The APBT is the most controversial and publicized dog in existence today.
The breed transformed from war heroes to one of the most feared dogs in America. The APBT is not the cruelest breed, rather, they are the most misunderstood breed that has fallen victim to the most inhumane treatment by a society scared by the media. The APBT needs to be brought out of the shadows of fear and become recognized as the loving, brave, and loyal companion they once were to America. According to Bad Rap, an organization dedicated to rescuing, training, and educating people about Pit Bull’s, the Pit Bull was selectively bred in the early 100’s in the British Isles for a sport known as bull baiting.
The name pit bull was derived from putting the dogs in “pits” for “bull” baiting. When bull baiting was banned, the now illegal sport of dog on dog fighting arose. When people crossed the ocean to settle in America, they brought not only their dogs as part of the family, but also the sport of dog fighting (Bad Rap). This lineage of fighting has not plagued the pit bull more than it has in the last couple decades. Within the last twenty years this loyal dog has wrongfully lost its place in society, but more importantly in a family due to the illegal back ally fighting arenas of the struggling class.
The APBT does not have the freedom to choose their home; nonetheless, they stay strong no matter what life gives them. The APBT has yet to give up on humans who have plagued their existence. Why is the human race incapable of giving this breed a loving spot in the family again? The history of the APBT is not just that of fighting. In fact, fighting is only a small portion of this dog’s history in America. The APBT has a history that no other breed can stand up to.
Bad Rap also claims that when the APBT first arrived in America, they were valued for protecting the homestead, working on the farms, hunting, hog catching, and being a companion to the kids (Bad Rap). The United States of America soon was admiring the breed for its loveable, brave, hard working qualities that were worthy of nothing but respect. When WWI rolled around, the APBT became a mascot for the war, being displayed on many of the war time posters to signify the neutrality and bravery of America and its soldiers.
However, posters would not be the only place you would find this breed in the midst of the war, the breed had to stand by their soldiers in the war itself. Sonnet Dashevskaya, a pit bull owner dedicated to showing people the positive press about the APBT, proudly writes articles about heroic APBT’S such as the most decorated war dog in history, a WWI veteran, named Sgt. Stubby. Sgt. Stubby had saved many soldiers lives and also captured a German spy while on duty in France. The war is not the only place the APBT has proven to be courageous. An APBT named Weela had loved being a hero and never gave up on saving lives.
In her most famous instance, when her town had fallen victim to a flood she saw her chance and ended up saving thirty people, twenty-nine dogs, thirteen horses, and one cat. How you ask? For a month Weela would haul up to fifty pounds of food across the water to feed twenty nine dogs, thirteen horses, and one cat that were stranded on an island. She also showed thirty people shallow areas for them to cross the river to safety. However, the list of heroes doesn’t end there, the number one customs dog in America is an APBT named Popsicle. Just how did he get his name?
Well, Popsicle was found during a drug bust in a freezer where he had been left to die after being used as a bait dog for dog fighters. Popsicle was rescued and started working for the government where he helped the feds seize 3,075 pounds of cocaine at the Mexican border (Dashevskaya). In the later years, the breed continued showing off its qualities and never ceased to amaze America. According to the American Pit Bull Registry, the first dog to travel across America in a car was an APBT named Bud. Bud made the long feat with his master Heratio who was the first person to drive across America.
On the trip Bud would help by watching out for big bumps in the road and got just as much publicity as his master. Haratio later donated Bud’s goggles to the Smithsonian. The APBT also became a favorite companion of many famous faces such as President Roosevelt, President Woodrow Wilson, Helen Keller, and the loved Pete from the Little Rascals (American Pit Bull Registry). If the APBT has such a rich, golden history with America, then where did it go wrong? Maybe it is not the breed’s fault but the people’s fault. The media seems to be infatuated with reporting APBT attacks.
According to Karen Delise, of the American Canine Research Council, on August 18th, 19th, and 20th, of 2007, there were humans attacked by dogs other than the APBT and sent the victims to the hospital with severe to fatal injuries; nonetheless all of these attacks were only reported once or twice in their local papers. On August 21st, 2007, however, two APBTS attacked a woman in her home and sent her to the hospital with severe injuries. When this attack went public it was reported in over 230 articles in national and international newspapers, as well as airing on CNN, MSNBC, and FOX news.
Karen Delise states, “Clearly a fatal dog attack by an unremarkable breed is not as newsworthy as a non-fatal attack by a pit bull. ” (Delise). It is hard to ignore the facts because they do not lie. A simple fact is the APBT is not the breed most involved in fatal attacks; nonetheless, they are involved in some. According to Catherine Hedges, from The Truth About Pit Bulls, an organization dedicated to educating people about the APBT, it has been calculated than an average of three people are killed in a year by APBTS, but keep in mind they do not commit the most.
Three people per year sounds like a pitiful number when, in fact, more than two thousand children per year are killed by their parent or guardian due to abuse or neglect. That means a child is eight hundred times more likely to be killed by their caretaker than by an APBT. It is also shocking to hear that an average of one hundred and fifty people are killed per year by falling coconuts. Therefore, you are sixty times more likely to be killed by a coconut than by an APBT. However, people are not afraid of coconuts so if they knew the facts maybe they would not be afraid of the APBT either (Hedges).
APBTS are not the only things to attack, when a human attacks an APBT it is usually an inhumane, heart wrenching account. Nobody wants to think of an animal being hurt or killed but it happens all to often to this breed. Too often the APBT is bought by people who selfishly use them for money and vent their madness on them. Karen Delise, from the National Canine Research Council, also states that on “February 18, 2008: A Los Angeles man was arrested for allegedly breaking the rear legs and fracturing the jaw of a young Pit bull dog.
The dog was found lying under a running faucet, drenched in cold water. The horrific injuries to this dog were inflicted apparently because the 22 year-old-man was upset over a break-up with his girlfriend. ” Also on “January 10, 2008: A pregnant Pit bull was tortured to death and left hanging in a Philadelphia schoolyard. She was chained to a fence and then beat to death with bricks. ” In another instance on “January 14, 2008: A malnourished Pit bull being kept in “deplorable” conditions in a basement cage escaped and bit a visiting boy in the arm, inflicting a minor injury.
The boy’s father, instead of seeing to his son’s injuries, took a drill, grabbed the dog by the collar and drilled 12 holes in the dog’s head. The dog died” (Delise). These examples are only a few of over 50 cases published by the National Canine Research Council in less than a year; nonetheless, most abuse goes unreported. In such a short period of time, Americas beloved APBT got kicked to the curb. It is time for people to stop seeing the APBT the way the media portray them. This breed deserves to reclaim its place back in the hearts and homes of Americans. It is time for our forgotten heroes to be recognized once again.
Issues and Challenges Faced by Working Mothers grad school essay help: grad school essay help
Generally, our society has taught us so much to love, respect and care for our mother who has endlessly nurtured and brought us up since we were born to this world. A mother is truly irreplaceable. Nevertheless, the world is changing and people are evolving into a new era of globalization. This is a world where people are no longer able to survive if they do not possess the necessary set of knowledge and skills. This is the era whereby information is the most valuable asset and without it; we are just nothing but a waste to the society.
If those days, men are supposed to go to work and find income while the women can stay at home and take care of the children, this scenario is no longer feasible. In this generation, both men and women are required to go to work to make sure that their day meets the end. Why is this necessary? Simple; only then, they can assure that their children could have a proper education and health insurance. Basically, this situation has just added up a mother’s challenges in facing the world. This particular review paper will discuss comprehensively about the issues and challenges faced by working mothers.
Let’s begin by defining the phrases so that we can better understand the given topic. “The issues and challenges” is defined as difficulties and problems. On the other hand, “faced by working mothers” means what are the working mothers are going thru at this stage. Generally, this topic implies the difficulties and problems that working mothers are going through on daily basis. First of all, the phrase “working mother” itself is something redundant. How can a mother not be working as she starts every day from preparing breakfast for the family in the morning until entertaining the husband at night? Basically, a other’s work is 24 hours per week without any kind of leave applicable. “The only difference between men and women is that women are able to create new little human beings in their bodies while simultaneously writing books, driving tractors, working in offices, planting crops; in general, doing everything men can do”, said by a working mother in The United States of America. What she had mentioned is absolutely true. When a man returns from work, he expects to get a good rest at home. Meanwhile, a woman would be expecting what kind of mess her kids have done to the home and then her works continues there too.
Working mothers still need to perform most of the house chores. Surprisingly, even when both parents are working, the responsibility to take care of the sick children will usually fall on the mother. Despite all these busy schedules, women are also bound to many other challenges from various factors. The biggest challenge would be income. If a mother is working, then naturally the child needs to be sent to the childcare center. In most cases, the fee to pay for the childcare alone would take most of the mother’s wage. In other worlds, the mother is simply working to pay off her kid’s day care center which does not make sense at all.
The second option is to hire a nanny. In Malaysia specifically, we always want the best things at the cheapest price. The problem is cheap things are never the best. For example, Malaysians always prefer to hire Indonesian maids to take care of their child while they are gone for work rather than hiring a local Malaysian due to the reason that the locals cost more money. However, what we fail to realize is that the foreigners have more potential to bring harm to the family institution. Hence, we always read cases on the newspaper such as baby murdered and run-away maid.
Recently, a health magazine from the United Kingdom has reported that juggling the dual roles of mother and worker is extremely hard. Hence, the second biggest challenge is work load. Assuming that the mother found a reliable nanny or convenient child care center, the next stage is her work load. Starting at home, and then at office, and finally back to home again. This has not included what kind of superior the mother is engaging with and what kind of colleagues she is dealing with. What if the manager is a tigress in the office? What if her working colleagues are just a bunch of hypocrites?
The stress would be simply unbearable. Nearly eight of ten working mothers would quit their job if they could. Close to half of all working mothers would prefer to be full time mothers, or at least they prefer to work from home. Stress management is vital to ensure that the child is confronting with matured parents. The third biggest challenge would be the children themselves. Putting a child in a day care center would definitely give a negative impact on the relationship between the mother and the child. The first few years or months at least, are the most important period to strengthen the mother-child bond.
This is the time when the child needs full attention, love and care. This is the time when the child needs to identify the mothers touch and fragrant. A day care center does not afford to provide the same experience to the child. They need to handle so many other kids as well. For them, all kids are the same and they will all be equally treated. No special attention and no special treatment. Even more serious if the child is taken care by a nanny, as it might turn out to be that the child is closer to the nanny that the mother.
It may sound ridiculous but this is already happening in many countries including Malaysia. Finally, the last but not least is sex life. Survey has reported that Malaysia is one of the countries in Asia that has the highest divorce cases. Here, people find their so called soul mate, get married and after a few years, they will be happily seeking for divorce. Due to excessive work load at work and also at home, these working mothers find it difficult to manage their stress. The inferior complex of women will force them to keep their problems to themselves.
This leads to lack of intimacy between husband and wife. When this happens, it ruins the whole family institution which is also bad for the child. As a conclusion, it is crucial to emphasize that a woman must consider career planning to be less or equally important to family planning. One must not embark higher priority on career planning than family; it simply would not work that way. This being said, we are not totally discouraging working mother. Necessary aids should be implemented to ease all mothers in managing their family efficiently.
A very good example would be the latest scheme announced by the Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Razak in the National Budget 2013, whereby all full time housewives will be eligible to receive allowance as a mean to support their family. Private and public organization should provide internal day care center for their employees. Apart from that, the government should create more works and business that requires mothers to work from home. If this can be done, then definitely we can see two good things. First, the nation will flourish and prosper. Second, our nation will have a better living society in terms of education and culture.
Classroom Rules college essay help service: college essay help service
Be Friendly, Positive and Self- Reflective: When people cannot see you, and also do not know you, feelings can be hurt if you are not careful in how you express yourself. The old saying, think before you speak is important here. Think before you write. One word of advice is, do not respond when you feel angry. Wait. Write it down somewhere and come back to it. When you do, you may find that you no longer feel the same way as you did when you wrote it, because you have had time to reflect about the situation. Last, if you still feel the need to be heard, then edit before you post, and write it in terms that are easily embraced.
This is also true when you feel a critique is necessary; say it in a positive tone. Reread what you have written to be sure it is positive. 4. Use Proper Language and Titles: Do not use slang or profane words in an education environment, even if they are words you consider, “not so bad,” as they will sound offensive to the reader. Do not refer to your professor as “Doc” or by his or her first name, unless it is acceptable with him or her to do so. Also, do not use caps lock when typing. It insinuates YELLING. That would hurt someone’s feelings and possibly give him (or her) the wrong impression of you. 5.
Use Effective Communication: Say what you mean to say. This takes practice and thoughtful writing. Try to speak and write clearly at all times. Again, reread before you respond. Define and restate your words when necessary. Correct a misunderstanding right away. Chances are, if one person felt a certain way about what you said, another may have as well. Likewise, be mindful of chosen words and joking. Let’s say for example, I write, “Get out! ” This slang term can be interpreted in several ways, either positively or negatively. 6. Professionalism: Leave the characters like smiley faces, and instant message abbreviations out.
Your friends may like it, but chances are your professor will not. Save it for personal conversations or definitely ask for permission before using them. They may be interpreted as childish or too casual for the online education environment. Lastly, always say please and thank you. 7. Ask for Clarification: If you are unsure of what was said, or the instructor’s directive, or are trying to interpret a person’s expressions, then ask again. Do not sit in silence either misunderstanding or feeling offended. Do not interrupt though; wait until there is a break in the conversation, or until the open interaction occurs.
Your instructor will appreciate your responsiveness and maturity. A simple way to do this is to say (or write), “I did not understand… “, which will always keep the onus for the misunderstanding on yourself. 8. The Golden Rule of Netiquette: The golden rule of netiquette in an online class or environment is, do not do or say online what you would not do or say offline. 9. I do not drop grades (I do not drop your good grades so why should I drop your bad grades? ). 10. There is no extra credit (since you did not do it the first time, I am not giving you a chance to not do it again). 11.
Make a friend in the class to call for back-up notes or assignments or for peer editing and clarification. A solid connection with other students is instrumental in being successful in college. Create study groups (I learned this late in my schooling, but it is a great idea). 12. Do not complain about the grade that a teacher gave you. Students are no longer given grades; they earn them (a slight change from kindergarten that a few students struggle with). I grade according to the syllabus and how effectively students meet the assignment objectives. 13. I do not care what grade you need to make.
I do care that you improve as a student (earning a certain grade is your concern while your being an educated student is mine). 14. If you cheat, you will earn a “0” and not be given a second chance on the assignment (if you are cheating, I do not want you in a medical, legal, military or any other important career. P. S. there is such a thing as a permanent record). 15. Only write about what you are passionate (if you do not care about the subject, I can guarantee you that I will not be). The only caveat to this is being sure that you can objectively distance yourself from emotional topics to see the flaws in your logic. 6. Communicate with me (I skipped the day where they taught mind reading in school and have regretted it ever since). 17. Learn to skip excuses and take responsibility for all that occurs (being late for class or missing assignments consistently means that it is your fault not someone or something else). 18. Get involved and stay involved (if you are not participating, you are just visiting). 19. This is a composition course and you need to follow the suggestions that I give you to be a successful writer. a. Avoid using “you” while writing, unless it is a process essay.
I have violated this several times in this writing but there are a few exceptions to this advice. Choose to take the advice and overlook my use. Stick to third-person plural unless you are relating a first-person anecdote: avoid using “I” unless you are relating an anecdote. b. Avoid “thing” since there are many better and more specific words. c. Read the MLA format instructions in A Writer’s Reference to ensure you format your essays properly. d. Use specific details to support your points: The more specific the details, the stronger the essay.
Global Strategy and Leadership essay help 123: essay help 123
The company led the way as an innovator, launching a large range of new products and processes to make photography simpler, more useful and more enjoyable. With the rapid growth of digital photography, competition against its product and being slow to embrace the move to digital technology Kodak has fallen on hard times. In January 2012, Kodak and its US subsidiaries filed voluntary petitions for Chapter 11 business reorganisation1 in the US Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York.
A company spokesperson said the aim of the business reorganisation was to enable Kodak to bolster liquidity, sell off nonstrategic intellectual property, and enable the company to focus on the most valuable business lines. The process will allow Kodak to continue normal business operations while it attempts to emerge a profitable and sustainable enterprise2. Kodak: Snapshot of an innovative icon slow to move with the times In filing for bankruptcy protection, Kodak executives say they are seeking to follow the path of US corporations that have reinvented themselves after a court-supervised reorganisation, like United Airlines and Chrysler.
Antonio Perez, the company’s oft-criticised chief executive who has been trying to turn the company around since 2005, said the bankruptcy was a step ‘in the transformation in order to build the strong possible foundation for the Kodak of the future’. ‘What everyone should expect from Kodak is business as usual’, he said in a video message. For critics, business as usual is exactly the problem with Kodak. They questioned how Kodak would emerge from bankruptcy as a viable company since it has not yet proved its turnaround strategy, focusing on consumer and commercial printers, can turn a profit. My sense is they have played every card they can dig out of the deck’, said Jay Lawrence Westbrook, a business law professor at the University of Texas.
He predicted that Kodak would liquidate most of its assets, with some parts remaining as viable companies, perhaps even called Kodak. But he added, ‘I would be surprised if they reorganised and look anything like the Kodak that went in’. Shannon Cross, an analyst who has had a sell rating on Kodak since 2001, said the problem for Kodak was that its core business had not been making money and the company had been living off licensing fees for intellectual property. To me it’s not clear that the pieces that will be left at the end make sense as a stand-alone company’, she said. ‘It’s sad that it happened. It’s not a surprise, the way it’s been managed’. 1 A US Chapter 11 proceeding is a legal mechanism that allows an organisation otherwise considered potentially bankrupt to focus on the preservation and reorganisation of ongoing operating companies. 2 The introductory two paragraphs are adapted from the Kodak Company website accessed 26 April 2012 via . Page 2 of 21
Global Strategy and Leadership—Pre-seen exam information The predecessor to Kodak, Eastman Dry Plate Co, was formed as a partnership in 1881 by George Eastman, and it became one of America’s blue-chip giants, a company whose name was synonymous with taking pictures and its ubiquitous yellow film box. But the company was slow to respond to competition in the film business from Fujifilm of Japan, which undercut Kodak’s prices. And though one of its own researchers invented the digital camera, Kodak was slow to embrace digital photography.
At a court hearing on Thursday evening, a lawyer representing Kodak creditors questioned management’s plan to borrow $US950 million to stay afloat during the bankruptcy process, noting the company had burned through $US2 billion in the past two years trying to reinvent itself. ‘From our perspective, what’s past is prologue’, said lawyer Michael Stamer. ‘They have taken what we believe is reckless and destructive spending and imposed them on this case’. At the end of the four hour hearing, Kodak won approval for $US650 million in interim bankruptcy financing, led by Citigroup.
Under Perez, who joined Kodak from Hewlett-Packard in 2003 and became chief executive in 2005, the company has tried to reinvent itself by focusing on printers, packaging and workforce software. Perez financed those efforts with billions in licensing fees from Kodak’s intellectual property, but analysts warned that Kodak was burning through cash too quickly and could eventually run out. Kodak announced in July that it would try to sell some of its digital imaging patents, hoping to cash in on a frenzy for intellectual property that drove Google’s $US12. billion takeover of Motorola Mobility. But Kodak failed to draw enough interest among potential buyers, driven in part by fears of the company’s deteriorating financial health. Mr Perez said his turnaround efforts were hurt by the recession, which slowed new business growth and expedited the decline of the film business. He said the objectives of the reorganisation included obtaining new financing to shore up confidence in Kodak, selling some of the company’s patents and adjusting ‘legacy’ costs—such as healthcare benefits to retirees—to the company’s now smaller size.
Allan Gropper, the federal bankruptcy judge overseeing the case said, ‘Kodak is a great American institution, and every creditor here, I’m sure, wants to see it get out of Chapter 11 as soon as possible and to prosper. The question is how to do that quickly and simply’. The first task may be for Kodak to sell the patents it has been trying to unload, said Daniel McElhinney, managing director of corporate restructuring for Epiq Systems. Though buyers may have been skittish, a court-supervised sale provided greater protection against liens and other claims.
A Kodak lawyer estimated the patents were worth $US2. 2 billion to $US2. 6 billion. If the sale is successful, and depending on how much money remains, Kodak will then have to convince the court that it has a viable business plan. Lawrence Perkins, senior managing director at Conway MacKenzie, a restructuring and financial advisory firm, said a bankruptcy could provide Kodak with a fresh start, but it would not be easy. ‘This is going to be a tough one’, he said. ‘Just like anything else, the business has evolved. It’s going to be hard to unwind 130 years of history’. Source: Martin, A. nd De la Merced, M. (2012), ‘Kodak: Snapshot of an innovative icon slow to move with the times’, The Saturday Age, Business Day, 21 January, p. 10. Replication of article in full. Global Strategy and Leadership—Pre-seen exam information Page 3 of 21 Kodak moments—A timeline of major company events 1881 Founder George Eastman starts Eastman Dry Plate Company with Henry Strong in his mother’s Rochester, New York kitchen. Eastman developed dry plates, which can be developed at any time, to replace photographic wet plates that had to be treated at once. 1885 First transparent film. 1888
First Kodak camera—the name was coined by Eastman, giving birth to amateur snapshot photography. 1889 Eastman Kodak Company formed. Transparent roll film makes Thomas Edison’s motion picture camera possible. 1892 Company renamed Eastman Kodak Company. 1898 First folding pocket Kodak camera. 1900 The Brownie camera sells for $1. Film is 15 cents a roll. 1901 Present parent company, Eastman Kodak Company of New Jersey, formed. 1929 First film designed for the new sound motion pictures. 1930 Added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index. 1935 Kodachrome, the first 35mm colour film, is launched.
Kodak holds a monopoly on film. 1938 First camera with built-in photoelectric exposure control, the Super Kodak Six20, introduced. 1963 The Instamatic, featuring easy-to-use cartridge loading film; more than 50 million were produced from 1963–1970; reduced to pocket-size in 1972. 1975 The first digital camera invented, but company keeps its focus on film, then its cash cow. 1984 First video system, Kodavision Series 2000 8mm. 1987 First one-time use camera, the Kodak Fling. 1991 Kodak partners with Nikon to market a professional-grade digital camera but sticks with film as core business. 001 Kodak EasyShare digital cameras and docking systems; popular with consumers but made little profit for the company since margin on digital cameras plummeted. 2005 The company focuses on consumer and commercial printers while photography products steadily lose market share. 2012 Kodak files for bankruptcy protection. Page 4 of 21 Global Strategy and Leadership—Pre-seen exam information Case Scenario 2 From Virgin Blue to Virgin Australia: ‘A fine balancing act’ 1 Introduction to Virgin Blue: Low-cost leisure travel for Australians
Survey on Teenagers Pocket Money mba essay help: mba essay help
Pocket Money is not just representing how much money that teenagers’ get; it also represents teenagers’ buying tendency, marketing size of teenagers, their finance method and possible reasons of stress because of financial problem. It’s worth to make a statistic on the topic teenager’s pocket money, for the reference of further studies on social research. In this report, the following data would be collected and analyzed. Firstly, we want to compare the pocket money teenagers how to spend their pocket money in past and that in nowadays (e. 2006 vs. 1999), then we should reveal the differences by our statistic figures like mean , mode etc, so that we can know whether they get more money or not, and other statistical information. Secondly, we also are interested in the relation between the teenagers’ ages and the amount of money they get, and then how this found out changes from 1999 to 2006. Thirdly, we want find what kind of things teenagers prefer to buy and whether they can handle their financial overload effectively by themselves.
After that, we will try to find the reasons for those phenomena and then generate the conclusion. Objective To build up an online survey, to collect sample data about teenager’s pocket money, how they use it, and any financial problem they faced. Questionnaires In this project, we use internet survey instead of questionnaire survey in collecting samples from teenagers. There are few reasons for us to choose such survey method: First, teenagers are very sensitive to the money they own and they feel too nervous when other people ask about the amount of their pocket money.
For those results, they prefer to refuse to answer this questionnaire by face to face method. Secondly, teenagers have a low incentive to do the survey on the street; they think it is wasting their time. This increases the difficulties in sampling from them directly. Thirdly, as a result, we choose internet survey which should be a more effective sampling method since teenagers are easier to access to computers and more willing to answer questionnaire as they feel that they can help other people. The online survey http://freeonlinesurveys. com/rendersurvey.
Around 34% students have $1501-2000 pocket money per month, which is second highest. 68% teenagers gain their pocket money from parents, where 29% teenagers gain their money pocket by part time job. The others which stated they gained by investment or gambling. But it seems there’s not reliable. In this chat rank 5 represent the highest value option to interviewee while rank 1 is refer to the lowest value option, it show that about 50% of teenagers put ‘studying’ as the last priority(rank 1) in their consumption, after that it will come to ‘saving’ at 25 %.
On the other side, ‘entertainment’ is the option which people most willing to spend their money on it and it take 30% in rank 5, beside that ‘dressing ‘also an option that’s less prefer 25% in rank 5. 32% students think that they spent more than they get, which need to pay attention. In the 36 student who said that they spent more than they get, 52% of them would borrow from the money, 42% would borrow from friend. It is need to be concern that 6% of teenagers would borrow from financial company. 37% teenagers think that they can’t handle their financial problem effectively.
Compared with sample mean we found, difference between two samples is 1292. 5-604=$688. 5. The difference due to change of HK economic environment and more teenagers earn their pocket money from attending part time job. It is advised that performing a larger survey if analyzing the relationship of teenagers and their pocket money more deeply. According to the survey data, it points out that teenagers are more concerned in materialism spending. And also, over 32% teenagers spending their pocket money is always greater than income, and teenagers are lack of ability to have their personal planning.
Lower than 10% teenagers think that saving is important when they received pocket money. They spend a lot either entertainment or dressing. The government should pay more attention to this problem, and educate teenagers how to spending their money effectively, and prevent they will have the thought of ‘Using the future money’. Hong Kong teenagers usually have some part-time jobs income, to satisfy their needs on materialism. The main reason influences teenagers’ shopping style is brand, which is a teenager like to pursuit for famous brand name. Conclusion Via this survey, basically we has the expected proposes.
We understand how teenagers get their pocket money and how to spend it, and also understand consumer behavior, including their mental characteristics. As a studies’ data, it can be used in the further studies in the social science. However, since the quantity of questionnaire is relatively few, so the result cannot fully reflect the fact of pocket money spending of teenagers.
Comparing Different Baseball Eras college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Baseball Players of Different I believe that an individual cannot compare between baseball players of different Era’s. The reason why I say this is because the game has changed dramatically. Over the years American League has allowed designated hitters since 1973, while the National League hasn’t. A designated hitter is a batter who bats instead of the pitcher. In the 1960’s pitchers did not have relief pitching, so you basically threw until your arm fell off.
It was also rare to see a pitcher throw a 100 mph. Now days you see a pitcher throw 100 mph fastballs, as well as relief pitcher warming up and throwing the same speed to help the starter pitcher get out of any problems they get into. In the 1960’s the mound height was set at 15 inches high, until 1968. That year, the baseball commissioner dropped the mound height to 10 inches. The height difference of a mound drastically changes how a pitcher throws. In the 1960’s more pitchers reached over 300 wins within their careers.
In modern days it is rarely to see a pitcher throw over 300 wins. This effect is caused by the downward motion of the ball. For example, when the pitcher threw from a 15 inch mound it made it easier for the pitcher to throw and harder for the hitter to hit, due to the downward motion that the ball had traveled. When the mound dropped to 10 inches it made it more evenly match and fair for the hitter to hit. The only person to get more than 300 wins in today’s era since the 1960’s was Randy Johnson on June 4, 2009.
This was only because he was 6 feet 10 inches tall, talented, left hander, and he dropped his arm to a 9 o’clock position, which made it seem to the left handed batters he was throwing behind them. He also stood on the right side is the rubber of the mound to create a greater allusion, which has scared lefties even more. Furthermore the reason why you cannot compare different baseball players from different era’s is because a few baseball players now a day’s use steroids; which are illegal, to enhance their performance.
In the 1960’s steroids were not introduced into the game of baseball yet. One type of steroid mostly used in the Major Leagues is HGH (human growth hormones). There was an investigation called the Mitchell Report, which named 150 ball players who used HGH steroids in December of 2007. Big name players like Roger Clemens, Jason Giambi, Andy Pettitte, Miguel Tejada, and Jose Canseco. Moreover, in the 1960’s baseball players used diet drugs like Asenlix or better known as Greenies. This drug helped ball players accelerate their hearts and give faster reflexes.
These drugs were undetectable in the 60’s, but now they are easily detected and are illegal in the game of baseball. We can take Barry Bonds, the best homerun hitter from our era and Babe Ruth for his era and you still could not compare them for those reasons. However, I do believe that there are more talented players overall then there were in the 1960’s. In the 1960’s there were only a handful of great ball players; although, now a day’s baseball players are so gifted that they enter the MLB of the age of nineteen and twenty, phenoms like Bryce Harper and Mike Trout.
Mike Trout holds the lead for hits and stolen bases in the major leagues as a twenty year old in this 2012 season. While Bryce Harper being the youngest player ever to play in the 2012 All Star Game. Why are younger players getting into the major league baseball organization more now than before you might ask? Well one explanation would be that the life expectancy of the 1960’s was late 60’s and now in 2012 it is set at late seventies. This mean that there are more people today that are in better health and more athletic.
In addition there are better programs, better training methods, and facilities. As well the Major Leagues draft ball players at a young age to help developed them into their potential. The reason why I’m interested in this topic is because of course I love baseball and it is something I’m very passionate about. I’ve been playing baseball at a very young age and I consider something I like to talk about because it something that I’m very good at and I can’t say that I’m good at a lot of things.
Plus it helps me relief my mind of stress, of any problems that I may have and relax. However, a huge reason why I wrote about this topic is because I always find people saying, “if we had such and such on our team to this day our team would be unstoppable. ” Those people got to understand that a lot has changed over the years and baseball isn’t the same as it was in the 1960’s or whatever era. The game has adapted and will continue to change without you whether you want it to or not.
Trinidad Working Women Introduction essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
An investigation into the changing roles women in the Gulf View area Traditionally, women have been the employees of their own homes. For centuries, it was the men who worked jobs to make money and the women who remained at home to raise the children and fulfill the household duties. In today’s society, however, one may find many female citizens engaging in activities that would have been considered unacceptable in the past. In generations gone by, the double standard has defined the positions of both men and women permitting men more freedom than their female counterparts.
For this reason, women are almost expected to undertake the roles imposed on them by society. However, evolution and technology has equipped females with the ability to branch into the non-conventional occupations completely defying the odds to compete in society as nothing less than equal to men. The test for whether or not you can hold a job should not be the arrangement of your chromosomes. ~ Bella Abzug The role of women is something that varies significantly across the world today. However, we can generally say that women’s roles have revolutionized from what they traditionally were in the past to what they are today.
This is especially true in more developed countries; with the recent recognition of Trinidad as being a developed country, changes such as these are most definitely present in our society. In the past, the woman’s role was to bear children and care for them. As part of that caring, women have been very involved in food preparation and household maintenance in particular. With the existence and vast advancements in technology, communication and infrastructure transpiring today, the assumed role of the woman as the caregiver has ceased to be the only acceptable role in some parts of the world and in some cultures.
The Caribbean society is one which has openly embraced this concept and as seen in practice today, many modern women are embarking upon the non-traditional task of being active members of the working class. The Caribbean islands usually tend to pattern super power countries such as the United States of America, the changing roles of women has only proved to be another example of this phenomena. According to a study conducted in May 2002 by U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the amount of women in the working population between the years of 1950 and 2000 has increased by 256. %. During this time period & afterward, it is undoubted that Trinidad and Tobago also experienced drastic increases in the female workforce. There is much debate on why this adjustment took place, the reasons range from desperate need for finances to individual interest and desire. The most prevalent causes for the changing roles of women in society are found to be the need for financial resources, the vacancy of members of the working class in particular fields, to provide for families and to obtain personal gratification.
Information Management college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Think about the different disciplines addressed in the lecture. How are the disciplines of information management, information technology, and informatics related? How do they differ? The disciplines of information management, information technology, and informatics are all related to contribution of information, contribution of computer, electronic technology, they contain information, collect information, have sources, also distribute information to the audiences.
Information management-collection and management of information. Information technology-any technology that assists in the production, manipulation, storage, communication and dissemination of information. Informatics-the science of information, data with meaning, and definition based on data, information, and knowledge. 2. Consider the types of roles and responsibilities of health informaticians.
Why are health informaticians critical to a healthcare organization, the community, and public health? Varied assortment of responsibilities such as: help design software for patient care, build and maintain research systems for clinical research, purchase and implement information systems, provide training and assistance to health care providers in using health information technology, conduct analyses of large health datasets, and conduct research development.
They have important role in the community; academic role as professors, have the responsibilities to educate those interested in the field of health informatics, conduct research to improve the acquisition, storage, retrieval, representation, and use of information in health and biomedicine. Researcher role with responsibilities of advancement of medical science and public health, advancement of informatics science. Health care delivery role with responsibilities to manage and process clinical data, information, and knowledge to support clinical practice.
That is why health informaticians are critical to a healthcare organization, the community and the public health. 3. Think about the different types of information systems in terms of their ability to support the requirements of a health care enterprise. Pick one and discuss with your classmates how the system supports the requirements of a health care enterprise Management Information System (MIS), it’s a system that helps manager’s plan and direct business. Health Care enterprises are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees’ performance record etc.
The identification of these aspects can help the company improve their business processes and operations. Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool. The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world.
The consumer buying trends and behaviors can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company. 4. Think about the support technologies for a health care information system described in the lecture. Pick one and describe how it fits into the bigger picture of a health care information system. Internet is cost effective, fast deployment, little or no IT support needed for the health care information system. It connects computers to the online healthcare networks.
It helps the health care information system to be better organized with more and bigger data collections, benefits more people, reduces human errors, and contain more precise and accurate information. It will help health care information system to be more prevalent to the users and it will benefit more people, including health care providers and patients and official informaticians. 5. Think about how the use of an EHR affects patient care safety, efficiency of care practices, and patient outcomes. Answer the following questions: What are the major benefits of an electronic record to the patient, the clinician, the health care facility, and the public? • What are the major barriers to implementing an EHR in health care facilities? • What steps might be taken to promote the benefits and overcome barriers to widespread adoption of EHRs? 6. Consider the connection of EHRs to the Health Information Exchange (HIE) and the Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) initiatives. What role does the EHR play in HIE? What is the impact of HIE and NHIN on health care delivery and the practice of health care providers?
Strategic Planning at Ups write essay help: write essay help
First, as an outstanding aspect of strategy and scenario planning, the continuous review of the process has to be men-tioned. The process of scenario and strategic planning is improved over the years and shows a learning curve within the UPS organization, e. g. the perspective of company outsiders is considered for the horizon to 2017. Besides this virtue, the use of dramatic presentations to visualize the scenarios can be evaluated as good. The establishment of a common basis and vocabulary for discussions through scenarios are further success factors.
Moreover, the two-step process of the Centennial Plan and the Strategy Roadmap draw the link between a broad vision and execution by using quantitative measures. Top-level support from the CEO ensured success of the strategic planning initiative. Finally, the appointment of a Chief Implementation Officer (McDevitt) resulted in success of strategic planning at UPS. In general many tenured managers as well as their young successors were involved to the planning process and contributed to the success by bringing in their experience. In addition to the favors there also exist drawbacks.
The first possible improvement regards the presentation used in the plan-ning process of 1997. Dramatic presentations might bias participants of the meetings to one scenario, e. g. “brave new world” gets too much focus. As a consequence, the ability to think about other strategies gets limited. Another questionable point is the high influence of the CEO on the planning process because improvement of results is more likely in a decentralized planning structure. The last point to be mentioned here is the lack of commitment to the purpose of scenario planning throughout the organization.
The purpose and use of it should be explained to all participants across the hierarchy. (b) The UPS purpose answers the question why UPS should exist precisely. Additionally, the mission statement provides context for all decisions. Furthermore it is not a subject of time and is useful for all internal and external audiences. But the mission statement is not concisely written. The expressiveness can be improved by using less but more precise sentences. The values are inspirational beliefs of the entire organization. The benefit of UPS’ values is the broad set and holistic ap-proach of customers’, employees’ and organizational values.
But it could be stated, that the values are kind of generic. Like Jack Welch would put it: “A good set of values are so real they smack you in the face with their concreteness. ” The strategy formulation represents a well defined set of concrete and detailed actions that show how UPS wants to win its business. But: the formulation could contain a bit more focus. (c) The Centennial Plan’s major purpose was to give the company a broad, overarching direction. It should work as a vision where UPS should be at its 100th anniversary, in the year 2007.
Moreover, the Strategy Road Map aims to transform the goals of the Centennial Plan in executable tasks. Thus, its purpose is to be a guide containing detailed measures and tasks for im-plementing the strategic goals of the Centennial Plan. (d) The excellent supervision of the implementation of the Strategy Roadmap by McDevitt is one of the project’s success fac-tors. His outstanding skills qualify him for this position: he keeps the big picture in mind, overcomes resistances in realizing projects, aligns implementation on a global level and possesses the drive to takeover directly responsibility in emergency sit-uations.
For the next planning process, he should remain in his role. One the one hand, within UPS are definitely more capable managers who could do the global transportations job, but only McDevitt has experiences in implementing high level strategic scenarios. One the other hand, he was involved in the development of the process and ministered the project for a long period of time. In order to ensure a smooth turnover without any disruptions and to keep the initial spirit alive, it seems to be recommendable to keep McDevitt in this position in the medium term and concurrently develop a capable follower for his current position.
International Business college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
An ethnocentric approach is typically appropriate for firms utilizing an international strategy. A polycentric staffing policy requires host country nationals to be recruited to manage subsidiaries, while parent country nations occupy key positions at corporate headquarters. The advantages of the polycentric approach are: Alleviates cultural myopia, and it is inexpensive to implement. The disadvantages of the polycentric approach are: Limits career mobility, and isolates headquarters from foreign subsidiaries. A polycentric approach is typically appropriate for firms utilizing a multidomestic strategy. A geocentric staffing policy seeks the best people for key jobs throughout the organization, regardless of nationality. The advantages of a geocentric approach are: Uses human resources efficiently, helps build strong culture and informal management network. The disadvantages of the geocentric staffing policy are: National immigration policies may limit implementation, and it is expensive to implement.
A geocentric approach is typically appropriate for firms unitizing a global or transnational strategy” (Hill, p. 534). b. Research suggests that many expatriate employees encounter problems that limit both their effectiveness in a foreign posting and their contribution to the company when they return home. What are the main causes and consequences of these problems, and how might a firm reduce the occurrence of such problems? “The number one reason for expatriate failure is the spouses’ inability to adjust. Some other reasons include manager’s inability to adjust, other amily problems, managers’ personal or emotional maturity, and inability to cope with larger overseas responsibilities”(Hill, p. 536). The main cause is the spouse is like a “fish out of water” so to speak. Meaning they are an unfamiliar setting. They don’t know anyone and more than likely don’t speak the language. This makes it impossible to adjust with people you can’t even communicate with. I can relate to this because I moved to Arizona to be with my fiance and even though it’s not as far as overseas I understand the frustration. They often feel alienated.
The spouse who is feeling trapped at home is probably not the easiest person to get along with either causing the expatriate to be miserable as well. Immigration regulations often prohibit the spouse from having employment so that intensifies the issues. The consequences could be the expatriate resigns from the overseas position, divorces the spouse, or the spouse divorces and leaves. Either outcome is horrible. c. What is the link between an international business’s strategy and its human resource management policies, particularly with regard to the use of expatriate employees and their pay scale? The most common approach to expatriate pay is the balance sheet approach. This approach aims to equalize purchasing power so employees can enjoy the same living standard in their foreign posting that they had at home”(Hill,p. 551). d. In what ways can organized labor constrain the strategic choices of an international business? How can an international business limit these constraints? Organized labor can significantly constrain the choices firms make with respect to location.
International firms often choose to locate new facilities in places where there is relative labor peace and harmonious working relations. Labor can also raise objections and threaten disruptive behavior if a firm decides to move some activities to other locations, which in some cases only reinforces the need for relocating the activities. “Organized labor has tried to counter the bargaining power of multinationals by forming international labor organizations. In, general these efforts have not been effective” (Hill, p. 551).
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Every year many people die from the cow flupidemic yet very little action is taken. One method that may save lives is the use of inoculations. However, the use of inoculations costs the state much more and also has a risk of death. The negative factors outweigh the small benefit of using inoculations. Moreover, the cow flu is present in rural areas where individuals are more susceptible. In these areas the local health care clinic should become proactive and educate individuals in those environments to be cautious.
The use of inoculations will not be enough to tackle this problem. First of all, there is a risk of death with the injection depending on the person. The strong injection has many side effects such as fast heart beat, fatigue and of course death. Furthermore, there are other ways to save lives other than using injections. The state should have routine screenings. The farms should be checked for bacteria and various other factors promoting the flu to be present. With various methods the disease can diminish and save lives. Outline Thesis:
The argument above presents a method to save lives, however, the use of inoculations may also increase the chance of death amongst individuals. However, there is not enough information or statistic to prove whether the injections cause deaths. 1st paragraph: The argument presents a negative approach for the use of inoculations, because, there is a greater risk of death. However, there is no evidence or facts present to show the injections cause these deaths. The author doesn’t provide any health facts or studies to support their argument. 2nd paragraph:
Furthermore, the author either believes there should inoculations or none at all. The author doesn’t present alternatives to take a better approach. The approach is vague and doesn’t go into details whether the vaccines may be only used on certain individuals. 3ndParagraph In order to make this argument persuasive: present stats and studies Counter argument: the stats may be unreliable or outdated. Closing: Hence, the author has presented vague information which doesn’t help the argument. The use of inoculations may pose a threat and increase deaths , however it still doesn’t persuade the reader.
Literature Review Celebrity Chef free essay help: free essay help
This review should bring all relevant facts about the subject and facilitate practitioners and highlight areas for further research. In short celebrity endorsement is about endorsing products with the help from a celebrity. Consumer association towards a celebrity endorsed produced increases their purchase intention as many see the celebrity as a role model. However, it is important that the consumer can identify with the celebrity and that the celebrity? s image fits with the produced he or she endorses, only then will celebrity backing be an effective advertising strategy. . 2. Background and Definition Nowadays, celebrities are used in advertising in almost every context. Athletes such as Michael Ballack (Adidas) or Tiger Woods (Rolex) or models such as Cindy Crawford (Omega) or Heidi Klum (Katjes) endorse several products. These celebrities act as a spokesperson in order to advertise and promote products (Kambitsis et al. , 2002). Celebrities can create more positive responses towards advertising and greater purchase intentions than non-celebrity endorsers (Byrne et al. , 2003).
Using celebrity as an endorser for a given product can either be positive or negative for a company/brand. A campaign that turned out successfully was the campaign with Jamie Oliver as an endorser for the supermarket chain J. Sainsbury. The successful format of the TV production “The naked chef” provided an ideal platform to use for the advertising campaign within a context relevant for J. Sainsbury? s desire (Byrne, 2003). An example of a campaign that did not turn out successful was when J. Sainsbury used the actor John Cleese in the “value to shout about” campaign in 1998.
Employees and customers alike felt that Cleese was not the right personality to personify the supermarket’s quality image (Whitehead, 2003). In the literature there are two different definitions of celebrity endorsers used. The definitions used are: “A celebrity endorser is an individual who is known to the public (actor, sports figure, entertainer, etc. ) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed”. (Friedman, 1979, p. 63) “Any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses the recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement”. McCracken, 1989, p. 310) In other words these definitions says that an individual who is known to the public in different ways. The individual is famous and utilizes his or her publicity to advertise a product that does not have anything to do with the individual fame. I consider McCracken? s definition as the most informative one as it is short and concise. The definition gives a clear view of what a celebrity endorser is. Previous studies have been done on consumers? response to celebrity endorsement in advertising.
Results of these studies show that celebrities make advertising believable and enhance message recall. Furthermore, when celebrities are recognized with brand names, it creates a positive attitude toward the brand and a distinct personality for the endorsed brand (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). 2. LITERATURE REVIEW In the following chapter the method used for this review will be introduced. The chapter will start with how a literature review is defined, followed by the literature search, method problems and quality standards. 2. 1. Definition of literature review
Conducting a literature review is about understanding a topic that has already been addressed, how it has been researched by other authors, and what the key issues are (Hart, 1998). According to the author Chris Hart (1998) the definition of a literature review is the selection of available documents; both published and unpublished (in my review I will only study published academic documents), on the topic, which contains information, ideas, data and evidence written from a particular standpoint. 2. 2. Literature search, methodology used When searching for articles I used the databases Emerald, Ebsco and ProQuest.
These databases were used because of the highest ranked journals in the field of marketing were listed there. I used the article Journal quality list (2008) issued by Harzading. com, research in international and cross-cultural management. High ranked journals increase the validity of the thesis, as validity is defined as “The ability of a scale or measuring instruments to measure what is intended to be measured”(Zinkmund, 2000). I also tried to find books relevant to the topic by using the library here at Les Roches International School of Hotel management as well as the library database google. scholar. . 3. Description of sub-topics Purchase intentions: Describes what impact the celebrity endorser has on the consumers purchase intentions. A consumer is more likely to purchase complex or expensive products which are endorsed by celebrities rather than by non-celebrities. Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) point purchase intention as an environment of associations between endorsement and consumer, depending if the consumer can identify with that association and purpose. Consumers? association to celebrity endorsement/endorser: How consumers associate/have a connection towards the celebrity endorsement/endorser.
If a company want a consumer to associate to an endorsed product it is important to choose an endorser who uses the product and where that use is a reflection of professional expertise (Daneshvary and Schwer, 2000). A formula 1 driver endorsing helmets is good, while a tennis player endorsing car polish is less good (ibid). Consumers? attitudes towards the endorser: The consumers? often have a positive attitude towards the product and the celebrity, despite the fact, that it is well known, that the endorser earned a lot when promoting the product (Cronley et al. 1999). Effectiveness of celebrity endorsement/endorsers: How effective is the usage of celebrity endorsement. It is, most likely, more effective to use celebrity endorsement constantly to increase the strength of the link between the celebrity and the endorsed brand. It is also more effective to use a celebrity who is not associated with another product (Till, 1998). Positive/negative effects of celebrity endorsement: the usage of celebrity endorsement can be both positive and /or negative, which can influence the company / brand in the end.
For example, using celebrities can be very costly; also, celebrities might switch to a competitor, which would then increase the risk of a negative impact (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). However, in can be said that celebrities in advertising are widely spread and persistent and the marketing executives continue to utilize celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy (ibid). Profitability of celebrity endorsement: The use of celebrity endorsement will hopefully lead to increased profitability.
Case study with 99 students, who were shown different advertisings using the same celebrity endorserThe use of the same celebrity endorser to advertise for various products has got a negative impact on the efficiency of the ad, the product and the endorser. Atkin / Block (1983)Is celebrity endorsement effective in advertising and how does it influence customer purchase intentionsExperiment with 196 test persons, where each participant was shown 3 versions of an ad. Each version featuring a celebrity endorser and a non-celebrity.
Advertising using celebrity endorsement is under special conditions more effective than using non-celebrities. Choi et al. (2005)How can celebrities be used successfully in advertising? How effective is the recall-value and the emotional response to celebrity advertising? Experiment with different groups of test persons. Advertising with celebrities is more effective than using non-celebrities under special conditions. Sanbonmatsu / Kardes (1988)How does the credibility of a celebrity affect the consumer purchasing intention? Interviews with 542 persons.
Consumer purchasing intentions are more effected using celebrities than using non-celebrities. Tripp et al. (1994) How do consumers judge the celebrity endorsement, the ad and the brand, if the celebrity endorses various products? What are the effects on purchasing behaviour? First Study: interviews with 461 students. Second Study: Interview with 10 test persons. Simultaneous advertising trough the same celebrity has a negative effect on the ad, the product and the celebrity. Agrawal/Kamakura (1996)Which economical effects on advertising are there when using celebrities?
Event-Study in regards to the effects on share prices trough the announcement of celebrity endorsementCelebrity endorsement can have a positive and a negative effect on share prices. Agrawal/Kamakura (1995)Can a single celebrity have a positive effect on the company? s value? Analysis of the share price of a company after announcing a celebrity endorserCelebrity endorsement can have a positive and a negative effect on share prices. Charbonneau / Garland (2005)How does a company find the right celebrity endorser for its products? Which criteria should be considered? Questionnaires: 414 marketing managers at 148 advertising companies.
The New Zealand study also discovered that the practitioners felt that celebrity endorsement could be a very effective promotional strategy, as long as there was an appropriate fit between celebrity /athlete, brand and message (ibid). So called celebrities are often associated with a high status due to them being widely recognized within society as well as extra qualities and power attached to them trough repeated media exposure (la Eerie and Sejung, 2005).
Practitioners in New Zealand felt that using a credible and respected celebrity or athlete as the voice or message carrier was more effective than having an ordinary model (Charbonneau and Garland, 2005). A study done by Friedman and Friedman (1979) indicated that celebrities are more effective in sustaining recall of the advertisement and the brand name of the product than using an expert or a typical consumer, regardless of the product.
If the most desired outcome has to be brand name and advertisement recall than a celebrity should be used as an endorser (ibid). Celebrities in contrary to anonymous models add extra subtlety, depth and power to advertising (McCracken, 1989). Anonymous models offer demographic information, such as distinction of gender, age and status but all these useful meanings are fairly imprecise and blunt. Celebrities however offer all these meanings with special precision and also add a range of personality and lifestyle (ibid).
Principles that can be used when considering a more effective use of celebrities to enhance brand equity have been summarised by the author Till (1998) as follows: •Celebrity endorsement will be more effective when the advertising implementation is simple and clear of irrelevant facts. Focus lies on the celebrity and the brand together. •Celebrity endorsement will be more effective when used consistently over time to increase the strength of the link between the celebrity and the endorsed brand. •Celebrity endorsement will be more effective when using a celebrity who as the right fit for the endorsed brand. •Celebrity endorsement will be more effective when using a celebrity who is not associated with another product. Another point mentioned by the authors Choi et al. (2005) highlights the fact that domestic celebrities are more effective in delivering messages as consumers are more likely to identify with them due to sharing the same cultural values. Also, they are readily available and cost-efficient compared with internationally recognized celebrities (ibid).
A study by Kamins (1989) mentioned that a celebrity spokesperson was more likeable and believable than a non-celebrity spokesperson. The authors Choi et al. (2005) conducted a study in Korea which showed that many Korean celebrities endorse more than one product and therefore multiple endorsements in Korean advertising raise a concern about their effectiveness. In order to achieve the most efficient and effective strategy it is important to understand the mediating role of the celebrity endorser and to assess the credibility of the endorser carefully (le Eerie and Sejung, 2005). . 2. The consumer The author McCracken (1989) describes a consumer as a person that constantly moves symbolic properties out of consumer goods into their lives to construct aspects of themselves and the world. They admire individuals who have accomplished it well and celebrities are a proof that it works. Arguably, the celebrities have once been where the consumer is going and has done what the consumer wants to do (ibid). This highlights the importance of the customer when it comes to celebrity endorsements.
Therefore I will discuss in the following sub-topics the association between customers and the celebrity endorsement / endorser, the perception between brand / product and endorser as well as attitudes towards the endorser. 4. 2. 1. Association to celebrity endorsement According to the authors Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) celebrity endorsement is most effective when the celebrity is closely associated in the consumer? s mind with the product. At the same time consumers believe that celebrities share important values with them or they might want to copy the way a elebrity appears (Miciak and Shanklin, 1994). The authors take the sample of Michael Jordan, a well known NBA basketball player, whom young teenage boys see as a role model and who “want to be like Mike” (ibid). However, a limitation of the effectiveness of association endorsement is the extent to which the consumer associate with the endorsing body (celebrity) and the degree to which those consumers see the product advertised as connected to activities of that endorsed product (Daneshvary and Schwer, 2000). The involvement of the consumer with the endorsing association is important.
Studies indicate that male celebrities are most commonly associated with visual plus verbal presentation style and female celebrities are associated more with a visual presentation (Stafford et al. , 2003). Male endorsers are also associated more with products with functional benefits, whereby female endorsers are used more often for a product that has psychosocial benefits (ibid). The authors Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) suggest that if companies really want to put emphasis on the consumer associating with the endorsed product it is important to choose an endorser that really uses the companies? roduct and where that use is a reflection of professional expertise. 4. 2. 2. Perception of association In 1987 the authors Burroughs and Feinberg mentioned that consumers learn the relationships between spokesperson (endorser) and products through exposure in advertising media. It is therefore very common for a product or brand to be associated with one celebrity endorser over a period of time (Hsu and McDonald, 2002). The way of how the celebrity and the product match each other plays a huge importance (ibid).
A critical moment for marketing managers is to select the right celebrity for the endorsement (Martin, 1996). The most important key to success is to choose a well-known, well-liked celebrity to make a memorable endorsement advertising (ibid). New Zealand practitioners acknowledge that positive consumer attitudes towards the celebrity could be transferred to the brand (Charbonneau and Garland, 2005). According to the author McCracken (1989) it is important to choose celebrities who best represent the appropriate symbolic properties when using celebrity endorsement.
After choosing the celebrity an advertising campaign must then identify and deliver these meanings to the product, it should capture all meanings that it wishes to get from the celebrity and leave no relevant meanings unused. Ultimately the connection between the celebrity and product suddenly is seen by the consumer, who then is prepared to accept that the meanings in the celebrity are in the product (ibid). However, the consumers? ssociation for a given brand will vary from one consumer to another as it is depended on the consumer’s knowledge structure of the brand (Till, 1998). Attractive celebrities are more often associated with greater product recall (Kahle and Homer, 1985). If the celebrity used for an endorsement becomes associated with several products the overexposure makes the relationship between the endorser and each of the products involved less distinctive, which then could lead to less positive influences towards the endorser (Choi et al. , 2005). 4. 2. 3. Attitudes towards the endorser
Despite the fact that consumers are well aware that the celebrity used for the endorsement has been paid a fair amount of money, the consumer still keeps positive attitudes towards the product and celebrity endorser (Cronley and Kardes et al. , 1999). An alternative explanation offered by the authors for this is that the consumers assume that the celebrity endorser likes the product whether they endorse it or not. According to Cronley and Kardes et al. (1999) consumers assume this without even seeing an advertising featuring the celebrity. The moment the celebrity? brand attitude became more favourable, consumers? attitudes toward the brand, the ad and the endorser increased in favourability (ibid). 4. 3. Positive or negative effects of celebrity endorsement In 1995 Agrawal and Kamakura suggest that there are decreasing returns associated with celebrities in advertising due to various reasons: a) the costs associated with celebrity endorsement are rising b) some celebrities endorse several products, at times switching to rival brands c) negative publicity generated by some celebrities has added a potential risk of egative impact on the product / brand and d) surveys of consumer reactions to product endorsement reveal that only a fraction of consumers react positively to endorsements (ibid). Celebrity endorsement has become a usual tool in advertising but those who choose to use a celebrity for their campaign have no control over the celebrity? s future behaviour (Till and Shrimp, 1998). Hence, any negatives about the celebrity can reduce the appeal of the brand that the celebrity endorses.
The risk is much greater for new brand in the market because of the associations to the brand is relatively low and also because the celebrity is the primary attribute on which the consumer gets a concept of the brand (ibid). The authors go as far as saying that marketing managers in the past dumped their celebrity endorsers, who were linked to a negative impact, in order to save the brand and because they feared consumers? retribution. As mentioned above it is always a risk to use a celebrity when the companies cannot control their private life therefore it is important to be careful during the selection process.
Also the time span of endorsers needs to be considered, e. g. a football player has a shorter career than an actor (Charbonneau and Garland, 2005). Moving on to the authors Tripp et al. (1994) a celebrity who endorses many products might have negative influence on consumers? perceptions of the endorsers? credibility, likeability and attitude towards the ad. The celebrity endorsement is much more effective when using a celebrity that is not associated with another product or service already (Till, 1998).
Still, the use of celebrity in advertising is widespread and persistent and the marketing managers continue to believe in that celebrity endorsements are a worthwhile component of the advertising strategy, despite the cost that are involved (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). Surveys have also been done that clearly indicate a positive impact of celebrity endorsement on expected future profits. Firms announcing contracts with celebrity endorsers have recorded a gain of 44 % excess returns on their market value (ibid).
Agrawal and Kamakura (1995) have also conducted studies on the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements that provide characteristics of celebrities that consumers view positively. One example of a positive advertising campaign is the one for the grocery chain J. Sainsburys that features the well-known TV-chef Jamie Oliver (Byrne et al. , 2003). It shows him, Jamie Oliver, shopping for ingredients in Sainsbury`s stores (see cover page picture) and then cooking for friends.
The main reason choosing him as the face for this campaign is that he will provide good recognition towards the brand, because he is associated with the preparation of great food (ibid). 4. 4. Purchase intentions According to the authors Sanbonmatsu and Kardes (1988) it appeared that consumers are more likely to purchase a product when it was described with a strong argument rather than by a weak argument. Furthermore the study showed that individuals exposed to the ad featuring the celebrity did not differ from subjects exposed to the ad featuring non-celebrity in their willingness to purchase (ibid).
Tripp et al. (1994) argue that the number of exposures to the celebrity endorser have a negative impact on the purchase intention. When making a purchase intention consumers pass through several stages (Burroughs et al. , 1987). First they learn something about the product advertised, modify their attitudes on the foundation of that learning, and the act on their revised attitudes (ibid). 5. CONCLUSION Whilst the process of using celebrity to endorse a product is fairly clear cut for manufacturers, an issue for retailers is that of the physical in-store properties and experiences.
Unless the store images reinforce the attributes conveyed by the celebrity endorser then in-store personnel will reduce the effectiveness of the campaign (Byrne, 2003). The challenge lies in the acquisition and matching of the best celebrity to endorse a company? s product and brand (ibid). A key element in this process is to use endorsers who have international credibility that is recognized across world markets. Typically such kinds of endorsers have come from the field of sport or music and have endorsed single product brands. Consumers do not need to be aware of the endorsers? kills but recognise that others regards them as leaders in their field e. g. Michael Jordan in the field of basketball (Miciak and Shanklin, 1994). The main task of the marketer then becomes ensuring that the international endorsers` brand image does not become overstretched or overpowers the product image in any way.
This research could be of good use for companies who would like to start utilizing celebrities in advertising, as important facts about the subject are gathered in this literature review. It has been written with two perspectives in mind, the consumer? as well as the company? s. By reading this literature review a company can get a clear view of this advertising strategy highlighting positive and negative effects. Companies can also learn how celebrity endorsement affects the consumer, how their associations to the product / brand can be and how this strategy influences the consumer purchase intention. 5. 2. Implications for further research The resources available very much focus on the use of celebrities from the fields of acting or sporting; however, there was one academic source available which included a celebrity chef (Jamie Oliver). Therefore further research is required in this particular field of chefs advertising for food products as athletes or actors mainly do advertisings for a single product. Moreover, in order to have a more accurate finding research in other countries than the United Kingdom is recommended.
Money Never Sleeps college essay help free: college essay help free
The best stocks will pay a dividend and have a stable commodity that the company produces. No matter what age we are, we are all fighting an uphill battle against the progress of time and what it means to our lives. Too often, we find ourselves with competing priorities and making decisions that do not make our lives better, but only make them worse. If we can use time to get our money to work for us, we may be able to get to a point in life where time with the family becomes the priority and not the exception.
Two lines that marks in my mind when I first heard it in the movie. Jacob Moore: What is the definition of insanity? It’s doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result. By that standard, most of us are insane. But not on the same time. What is the definition of insanity? One could say that the definition of a insanity is doing the exact same thing over and over again, and expecting different results. However, if that’s true, then aren’t we all crazy then? Maybe not all at once, but maybe at different times if that’s the case.
Therefore, wouldn’t our capitalistic society be deemed crazy then? After all, there’s no secret that our stock markets have crashed various times throughout our history. Sure, you can argue that we’ve always managed to pull out of it before, but the results are hardly different, as the cycle continuously repeats itself. Where the most ruthless and cut throat businessman can make it ahead in Wall Street, while the honest man gets left in the dust. Gordon Gekko (Michael Douglas) argues that greed is good, and it’s the foundation of our economy.
If so, where does the sense of morality and humanity fit in within a world consumed by power and greed? Set a little over two decades since the last movie, “Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps” is about a young up and coming Wall Street player a named Jacob Moore, who works as a stock broker, while moon lighting as a corporate CEO for a alternative energy source company. Unfortunately due to a series of events, his long time mentor commits suicide when the stress of losing his company gets to him, as a savvy investor moves in and forces him out.
As the global economy teeters on the brink of disaster, Jacob partners with disgraced former Wall Street corporate raider Gordon Gekko on a two-tiered mission: To alert the financial community to the coming doom, and to find out who was responsible for the death of Jacob’s mentor. Unfortunately for Jake, Gordon has other priorities in mind outside of rekindling things with his daughter, Jacob’s fiance. Now, I won’t say what happens next, as I wouldn’t want to ruin the film.
However, for those wondering if Gordon Gekko is a changed man or if he learned anything about life from losing it all, at the end of the last film, to becoming rich again, then all I can tell you is that you’ll have to watch the movie to find out. Trust me, it’s worth it. The way the story is set up, it has it leading towards one way to where you’ll think you have Gordon figured out, but he does the complete opposite that shocks you. Like the last movie, “Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps” is a powerful film about the dangers of capitalism, corporate greed, while begging to ask the eternal question…. In world consumed by greed, where does humanity and compassion come into play? ” Back in the eighties, the first “Wall Street” played on that concept quite beautifully, as corporate greed dominated Wall Street during that era of our society. Therefore, it seems only fitting that the sequel shows the consequences of that same corporate greed within today’s struggling economy. As some of you can tell by now, I did like this movie a lot. In fact, I thought Michael Douglas and Shia LaBeouf worked extremely well together.
Although if I had some major gripes about this movie, that I’m sure casual viewers won’t notice, but they’re worth noting. One, being the relationship between Jacob and Gordon, as it comes off being too eerily similar to the relationship between Bud Fox and Gordon Gekko’s relationship in the last movie. Sure, there’s a few scenario changes here and there regarding the factor of Gordon’s daughter being involved, and how the evil corporate prick is actually Bretton James this time around, but it still feels eerily similar.
Although I will admit, Josh plays a pretty good jerk. Another problem I had was the reappearance and explanation of what happened to Bud Fox from the last movie. Don’t get me wrong, I understand with this being a sequel, they wanted to put some closure towards that character, but I preferred the mystery. If anything, the self proposed new closure to Bud Fox’s life not only has nothing to do with the main story of the sequel, it contradicts the powerful morally driven ending that made the last film so potently deep.
As for his daughter… where the hell did she come from? In the last movie, he didn’t have a daughter, but he did have a son. Oh well. I guess they can always justify it, as Gordon’s family was rarely in the last film to begin with. Outside of those few gripes, “Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps” is a powerful emotional film that speaks true about the corporate greed of our modern society, while begging to ask the eternal question…. Where is our sense of humanity and compassion within this world consumed by greed? ” Definitely worth a three out of four, as Oliver Stone manages to once again present a powerful film about our modern times, as only he can. Gordon Gekko: The mother of all evil is speculation. Borrowing this famous line to forewarn young population of impending turmoil of world economy which may lash the first and the later too within a month to two years to come. Believing that forewarning means forearming.
Young people is not to indulge in speculation while planning investment strategy now for future. Young generation should hold money and get ready to invest when market stabilizes at lower end of the spectrum. All investment should be made now in Debt instruments and investment in equity should only start as the market goes down considerably. No investment should be made for his neighbour had made money from equity investment last year, or neighborhood brokers have shown him the Golden Goose of equity investment.
Graham Greene: the Invisible Japanese Gentlemen college essay help near me: college essay help near me
What do you think about the comments made by the author in the story? The author made several comments about how naive upper class people can be in some aspects, especially the young woman who believed in everything her publisher told her and she would become a novelists. On the other hand, his comments were the main trend of the story without it would be difficult to understand the relation between the Japanese gentlemen and the girl with her fiance. They come from different cultures and speak different languages.
Although it is not clear what the Japanese were talking they seemed relaxed and enjoying that moment in the restaurant. However, the couple was kind of discussing about marriage, dates, what she would write for her next novel and he was talking about how his uncle offered him a job with him. No matter the topic, the situation was delicate because of the topics they were discussing. But, what the author remarked the most was how the young woman truly believed she was a writer and that her novel “The Chelsea Set” would a success just because her publisher told her so. . What role does the author play in the story? How do the observations made by the author influence the story? The reader? The characters? His observations help the reader to understand a bit better the different events that are happening in the restaurant. He also interpreted and described the conversations and actions that occurred in the place. His comments gave life to the characters and made the reader more aware of the conversation between the couple and what the Japanese were doing. 4.
What role do the Japanese Gentlemen play in the story? They are contrasts. The author was sit right in the middle of the two tables. Therefore, he could compare what each table was doing, how their behavior was and what their goals were. Although the Japanese gentlemen were speaking about goals, they seemed to have a great time, but the couple was talking about weeding dates, dreams and ideas for another book. Also, the Japanese people behaved in a more relaxed way than the other table where everyone seemed very “polite”.
The story contains 10 different characters: – A group of eight Japanese gentlemen: Most of them wore glasses and most of the time they were smiling. They talked in a not very understandable language. – A beautiful young lady: Blonde hair and pretty girl. She had thin features and a gorgeous face. She looked very sophisticated. – And her fiance: He looked very handsome too. He was very similar to her fiance, he looked from the high socialite. The author of this short story made a wonderful description of each of the characters.
Physically he is in the setting of the story, sitting in a different table, worried about this particular couple which called him attention. He is looking both tables but he really got interested with the one where the couple was sitting. The observations that are made by the author of the story makes us, as readers more conscious about what is going on with the couple. We can indentify their worries, specially the ones of the girl, about her future as a writer and also her concernes about the wedding and their future as a couple.
The Japanese Gentlemen are in the begining a distractor but then we can realized that are fundamental in this short story. They try to show us an important characteristic of the girl? s personality. Even though at the begining of the story she seemed intelligent and a good writer, aftewards we can say that she is not a good writer because she is not a good observer. She is just a girl who is worried about her future and her career but she does not seem like a real writer because she does not have the power to look beyond things.
That is why the story is called “The invisible Japanese Gentlemen” because through her eyes Japanese Gentlemen were nobody they were almost invisible. She was so concerned about her own superficial worries that she left the restaurant and she did not have a look at them. I think that a writer must be critical and look beyond things. They have to have the power of interpreting things that no-one are able to identify, they must open a door to make us critical and have our own critical thinking about a certain topic.
This girl does not have any of those characteristics, she is not a good writer because she is very superficial and also very egocentric. The Invisible Japanese Gentlemen From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Invisible Japanese Gentlemen is a short story written by Graham Greene in 1965. Plot The story takes place in Bentley’s, a restaurant in London (perhaps the same as the current Bentley’s, 11-15 Swallow Street). The narrator is sitting at a table, alone, and observes a group of eight Japanese gentlemen having dinner together, and beyond them a young British couple.
The Japanese speak quietly and politely to each other, always smiling and bowing, toasting each other and making speeches in Japanese which the narrator doesn’t understand and describes in patronizing, derogatory terms. Seven of the Japanese gentlemen wear glasses. They eat fish and later a fruit salad for dessert. They provide a mildly farcical and carnivalesque background to the main focus of the narrator’s attention, the couple. Although they sit farthest away, the narrator catches their conversation.
The pretty young woman is a writer, about to be published for the first time. She’s describing her plans to her fiance, how Mr. Dwight, her publisher, lauds her talent, and how she wants to travel the world, especially to France, so as to feed her inspiration. She also wants to marry her young fiance the following week, being convinced that their financial future is settled thanks to the inevitable success of her first book, The Chelsea Set. Her fiance is much more cautious and doubts that they should rely exclusively on the young woman’s professional prospects and talent.
His uncle could help him get into the wine trading business, a duller, but also safer life choice than to be the husband of a traveling author. The young woman, aggressively self assertive and bossy, is angry at her fiance for being lukewarm about her projects. She, on the other hand, has no doubts about her powers of observation and her future success. Throughout the story, the narrator, who, the reader gathers, is himself a writer, makes sarcastic or cynical comments about the young woman’s ambition and youthful enthusiasm.
He sounds embittered, being probably in his forties or fifties, and certainly past his days of glory. He knows about the publishing business and is aware of the gap between a young author’s expectations and the harsher, down-to-earth realities of a literary career. He is both jealous of the girl, because she is at the beginning of something and still has the ability to dream her future, and sympathetic, because she’s young enough to be his daughter and he would like to communicate his experience to her so as to preserve her from disappointments. She is, after all, only a superficial, self-deluded arriviste.
Lastly, the Japanese gentlemen’s presence, and the elaborate formality with which they communicate with one another and celebrate, contrasts sharply with the ferocious discursive dispute that opposes the young woman and her fiance, and which she wins, at least rhetorically but fails to fulfill her supposed “powers of observation” by failing to notice the presence of the japanese gentlemen as her fiance does. Summary In the Story Invisible Japanese Gentlemen , a girl is in a restaurant in London and she is talking to her fiance. As she sits talking to him, she every once and a while look over at a table of Japanese men eating.
The narrator sits at a table between the girl and the Japanese men. As he over hears there talking, He learns that the girl is a writer and is about to get her first book published. Her publisher has told her good things and promises her a good sell. Her husband is not so sure and trys to tell her not to get her hopes up and plan to far ahead. The Japanese men then get up and leave. The girls fiance then says” i wonder what all these Japanese are doing here? ” She then answers back,” What japanese, darling. ” Critique: There are many elements in this short story that make it modern.
The first element of modernism is the stories Resistance to traditional form. This is shown in the Story because there is usually a clear beginning, middle, and end. In the Invisible Japanese Gentlemen there is no end, In some cases this is called acliff hanger. But, this is not the case, the story is not suspenseful and is not preparing for a sequel. Since the story ends ebruptly, and does not give any solution to the problems it is a modern story. Another modern element shown in the story is shift of focus, during the story there are three sets of characters described and there is a shift between which one is important.
It could have been either the Japanese men, The girl and her Finance, or the narrator himself. This shift between the characters is another example of modernism. Technique over content is also show by how the author builds up to were the story stops. During the story the girl looks over toward the table of the Japanese men but then at the end, she does not know that they are even there, and can not see them. The narrator sitting between to two groups of interest is also gives the story a modern aspect. In most traditional stories the narrator of a story is not placed in the middle, unless he is an important character. The invisible Japanese gentlemen” by Graham Greene In the story of Graham Greene, the attitude of the girl is quite normal. When you are in a Restaurant people are often interested in their conversation and not what happened surround them. Probably, what you can do is to see who is in the tables next to you, the number of guests, their nationality, if they are two girls or two boys, a family, etc. The fact to see people from other countries, most of the time is interesting for us. Probably, it could be the reason of the author to focus on their conversation instead of his own.
In the story Greene, show us a girl a little bit superficial and concentrated only in what she is talking and what she wants, to get married with the man. Most of the time the girl is presented foolish because she speaks to the man without realized he is not concentrated in their conversation. The man is aware of the Japanese that are in the table next to them. They seem to be elegant, intelligent and talkative. Inclusively they should seem to have a lot of notoriety in the place because of the way in which the author places his attention in them was amazing. It was like a treasure which one the author did not want to loose the footprints.
The title of the story suits perfectly with what it contains. Even though the man was out of the group of Japanese, he was as an invisible guest looking from the other side of the place. The only think that he could not do was to interfere in their conversation. The title as the complete story are appealing and motivating but at the same time it gives you a real perspective of what can happened in a restaurant. Graham Greene (1904-1991). a prolific English novelist, playwright, short story writer and critic whose works explore the ambiguities of modern man and ambivalent moral or political issues in a contemporary setting.
His religion informs most of his novels, and many of his best works are explicitly Roman Catholic in content and preoccupations. Greene’s novels are written in a contemporary, realistic style, often featuring characters troubled by self-doubt and living in seedy or rootless circumstances. The doubts were often of a religious nature, echoing the author’s ambiguous attitude to Catholicism. Throughout his life, Greene was obsessed with travelling far from his native England, to what he called the “wild and remote” places of the world.
His travels provided him with opportunities to engage in espionage on behalf of the United Kingdom (Greene had been recruited to MI6 by the notorious double agent Kim Philby). Many of his books have been filmed, most notably 1947’s Brighton Rock, and he also wrote several original screenplays, most famously for the film The Third Man. Characterisation protagonists: a young woman who writes novels her fiance who is a wine-merchant minor characters: eight Japanese gentlemen middle-aged waitress indirect: publisher Mr. Dwight first-person narrator. Whenever we have a first-person narrator we need to ask ourselves if he can be trusted.
Is he biased? Can he know everything he tells us? In this story we have a first-person narrator who is not a direct participant in the story. On top of that, the narrator is an author – someone who makes up stories for a living. That should make us extra suspicious. How much of what we are told about the couple could the narrator really know, and how much is pure guess-work? Compare the narrator’s powers of observation with those of the young woman. Setting: Where? Bentley’s, expensive fish restaurant in London’s West End When? in the 50’s/60’s during a meal (the story was first published in 1965) Plot
The young woman and her fiance sit in a restaurant discussing their forthcoming wedding. She is also talking about her first novel which is called “The Chelsea Set”. Because of her second novel she thinks about moving to St. Tropez. Her fiance questions their wedding. He has the opportunity to work for his uncle. Therefore he doesn’t want to move to France. Having finished their meal the man asks his fiancee if she has seen the eight Japanese gentlemen, but she’s so self-centered that she didn’t recognise them. Some thoughts The female protagonist is a young woman who has just written her first novel.
She is very ambitious and is always trying to please her publisher called Mr Dwight. In order to be successful she changes the title of her book in accordance to her publisher’s wishes. She probably belongs to the upper classes which becomes obvious in the way she speaks. She is very self- centred, talking all the time about her problems without listening to her fiance. She is oblivious to his feelings. The eight Japanese gentleman don’t fit into her picture of an idealistic world. Even though they look very different and behave in a noisy way she doesn’t notice them because she is so self-centred.
The narrator actively takes part in the story. He is sitting across the room from the young novelist and her fiance and listens to their conversation. His powers of observation are put in stark contrast to those of the girl (his are infinitely greater). The point of view of this story is third-person. The narrator is an unnamed man who decides to have lunch at Bentley’s, a restaurant in London, which answers your question about the setting. One of the themes of this story is lack of observation. The young woman is excited about having her first novel published and is especially pleased that her published praised her “powers of observation. However, when her fiance mentions the Japanese men who were seated near them, she admits that she never even noticed they were there. Another theme might be called the wisdom of age versus the naivete of youth. The narrator himself is an author, and as he listens to the woman go on and on about how successful she knows she will be, he can’t help thinking how naive she is. Getting one novel published does not make someone a best-selling author. She has already spent her royalties in her imagination, but what if the book doesn’t sell?
She’d do better to let her fiance take the job with his uncle than to dream of a rich life in St. Tropez. “The Invisible Japanese Gentleman” I chose The Invisible Japanese Gentlemen, by Graham Greene for my first critique. This story follows the conversation of a young couple in a sort of restaurant, called Bentley’s. The young woman was beautiful, and wanted to become a novelist. She had written a novel, entitled, The Chelsea Set, already in the publication process, and deeply desired marriage to her lover, because she had gotten an advance of 500 pounds.
He, on the other hand, was very reluctant. This story appears to be about opinions, and how they influence us, and change over time. The girl wants her fiance to marry her right away, because now they have the money to. However, the young man does not appear thrilled with the idea, and begins the speak. “My mother says that writing is a good crutch …” Giving the opinions of his mother as a reason not to be a novelist. The narrator also forms opinions throughout the entire essay. He first thinks of them as nearly the same, resembled each other physically.
The narrator then decides the man should have been, “a young officer in Nelson’s navy …” He believes also that she deserves much more than to just be a novelist. The narrator decides the man does not have, “the Nelson touch,” Mr. Dwight the publisher thinks the name of the novel should be changed, the girl thinks she should keep her publisher happy, and that they should spend time in St. Tropez, while the young man thinks they should stay in London. These are all various opinions given in the story, and many are subject to change, just as the narrator’s opinion of the young man’s character changed throughout the story.
This story contains elements of modernism throughout. There is a shift in focus in the beginning of the story, first your attention is set on the eight Japanese men. Even the title suggests this story is about those men. However, after hearing a bit about the men and their behaviour, the attention switches to the young couple. Greene occsionally directs your attention back to the Japanese men, and even to the narrator himself, using the young girl as a vehicle for this. There is a bit of a resistance to traditional form here as well, because the title does not reflect the main idea of the story.
Social Structure Theories persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
Social structure theories are theories that aim to describe criminal behavior. These theories have been used for years to decipher the many aspects that plan a hand in people committing various crimes. The three main theories are social disorganization theory, strain theory, and cultural deviance theory. Each theory is different in determining the factors that cause criminal behavior. Also these theories have had a significant impact on different public policies.
Social disorganization theory focuses on conditions in the environment. This theory focuses on run-down neighborhoods, gangs, lack of social control, and conflicting social values as factors that produce crime. When a person is living in a run-down neighborhood with gang violence it may be hard for them to imagine anything else even getting out. Once a person becomes acclimated to a situation it then becomes the norm and when it does become the norm it is viewed as being okay to live that way. Also with this theory is gang violence.
In deteriorated neighborhoods there is little to no structure or organization and some crave this in their daily lives. Also the need for belonging also plays a part in gang formation. These factors contribute to the high amount of gangs and the violence that come along with them due to conflicting social values. The social strain theory focuses on conflict between goals and means. This conflict has to do with unequal distribution of wealth and power, frustration, and choosing alternative methods of achievement.
Unlike the social disorganization theory which is concerned with environment the social strain theory is more focused on goals and the means to obtain them. Crime can be associated with a lack of education, lack of a good job, and the lack of opportunity to obtain either. What it really boils down to is the lack of money. Without money it is impossible to achieve the American dream whatever your version of it may be. For this reason many will choose alternative means of achieving their goals and more often than not these alternatives involve crime.
Crimes such as selling drugs, robbery, and fraud are not uncommon for those who lack opportunity. Last is the cultural deviance theory which combines the social disorganization and social strain theories. As a result of disorganization and stress in deteriorating neighborhoods subcultures are being developed. Within these subcultures the values may differ from conventional good order values and those within the subculture must adapt to these new values.
Things such as a college education are not valued as much as fast money and nice cars are in some subcultures. Even human life can hold a different value in some subcultures born as a result of disorganization and stress. Cultural deviance best describes why a lot of crimes are committed because it encompasses more. It takes into account the disorganization and stress of a deteriorating neighborhood, the subcultures that develop as a result, and the lack of means to achieve goals within those subcultures.
Country Road Limited free essay help: free essay help
CR currently has a strong brand reputation and continues to grow by opening new stores and currently operating in prime retail locations across Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The report begins with exploring CR’s internal and external environment and assessing CR’s overall strategic position in the Australian retail environment.
Also the report provides an accounting analysis, which identifies CR’s performance, financial strengths and inherent risks using financial analysis. This analysis highlights the company performance during the past three years and compares it with CR’s competitor (Oroton Group) by conducting time-series and cross-sectional analysis. Moreover, the report conducts forecasting and evaluates the value of the company. The evaluation focuses on estimating future performance of CR by applying assumptions based on CR’s performance in the current environment.
Lastly, sensitivity and scenario analysis is performed to estimate CR’s future performance in three possible market conditions. This material based upon information that we consider being reliable, but does not warrant its completeness or accuracy, and should not rely upon as such. Assumptions, opinions and estimates constitute our judgement as of the date of this material and are subject to change without notice. Past performance is not indicative of future results. This material is not intended as an offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security of financial instrument.
This material does not take into account your particular investment objectives, financial situations or needs and is not intended as a recommendation. Before acting on any recommendations in this material, you should consider whether it is suitable for your particular circumstances and, if necessary, seek professional advice. This investment analysis report was prepared from the sources listed in bibliography. All rights are reserved by 2010. is a registered trademark under the group, The Retail Industry & its Prospects Retailing is divided into 14 specific categories each housing specific products and services.
This report will focus particularly on ‘Clothing, Footwear and Accessories’, which are CR’s main product lines. Current & Future Overview Typically, the economy’s performance is a major platform for Clothing and Footwear retailers as switching, alternatives, substitutes for high-end and discretionary items are always the first to be avoided during an economic crisis. Since the global financial downturn in late 2008, retailing has since delivered negative growth. Employment within the sector, the ‘second largest single employer within Australia’, also fell by 6% in 2009.
Valuation of Immovable Properties write essay help: write essay help
It is human nature to create controversy even where it does not exist. Expert values have been fighting, in vain, to find out whether valuation is an art or a science. To set this rift at rest, Justice Viscount Simon of the House of Lords in Gold Coast Selection Trust case held that “valuation is an art and not an exact science. Mathematical certainty is not demanded, nor indeed is it possible”. Thus valuation cannot be tied up by rigid laws of nature or science.
It also cannot work under fixed and inflexible set up of principles because it has great dependence in human nature and individual’ thinking. It can not be said that vacant flats are always required to be valued on comparable sales method. Sometimes circumstances may demand value estimation by Rental Method. Hence two flats in the same building may have different values for the same area. Similarly two adjacent plots in the same area may have different values because one plot falls in garden reservation and another plot is marked for commercial user.
An old case of human intelligence affecting value of property is worth studying. An open plot of land was offered for sale in a posh locality of Mumbai. But there were no buyers for the plot because it was subjected to the covenant that no construction above 5′ would be allowed to be put up in the plot. Owner failed to sell plot for 2 years in spite of his best efforts. One day a person came with an offer of Rs. 10 lacs with condition that the deal be completed in 2 days time. Owner was too happy and he immediately agreed to sell the property, but he also let the buyer know about the covenant.
The purchaser replied that he was aware of that restriction. After the deal was completed, the curious vendor asked the purchaser about the proposed use to which the land would be put and he came to know that the purchaser intended to put up a petrol pump on the said plot. Thus human intelligence changed a `bad covenant’ into a lucrative business use. The plot worth few thousands fetched a price in lacs. That is why it is said that stream of thoughts are the wings gifted by the nature to the whole mankind. With these wings of thoughts, we can solve many riddles.
One may wonder why Harshad Mehta’s flat in NCPA Apartment at Nariman Point in April 2000 fetched only 460 lacs whereas a similar flat of Chabrias at the same period of time in the same building fetched 603 lacs. Both flats were sold in the open market. The reason for low price in the case of Harshad Mehta’s flat was the forced sale under court’s auction order. Purchasers exploited the distress condition and offered less price. It was a case of a unwilling seller and sale in the shortest period of time. In the other case, plenty of time for the free sale was envisaged, hence higher price was available.
It is thus clear that value of property goes on changing depending upon facts and circumstances in each case at relevant period of time. Value assumes new colour and new meaning with the prefix or adjective attached to it. 5. 2 Meaning of value with different adjectives attached to it FAIR MARKET VALUE: It is an estimate of price likely to be fetched in the open market.
Secrets and Lies essay help writing: essay help writing
I would like to argue that in Secrets and Lies Mike Leigh is suggesting that secrets cause tensions in families and destroys relationships between family members. Firstly, I would like to consider that it is actually true according my own experience because there is been some lies and hidden secrets in my family as well and once they are exposed, it causes embarrassments to those whom are affected.
Secondly, I believe secrets can form a negative and positive impact once they are exposed because, it can be a turning point where families consider reuniting and leave the past behind which obviously happens in Secrets and Lies. Sometimes it happens the other way around where Secrets and Lies destroy relationships between family members forcing them to abandon each other. In this paragraph I focus on how Secrets and Lies is compared to other movies based on a humanistic approach meaning that they introduce the nature of human behaviour in societies.
Mike Leigh assumes that,” The films that are made in most parts of the world aren’t “independent” films; they’re just films, really. Here “independent” films mean films made in spite of Hollywood. ” (Miller) Leigh considers Secret and Lies as an independent movie in a sense that it contains realistic facts and truthfulness compared to those produced by filmmakers in Hollywood where they mostly focus on style, cinematic etc. Leigh is right in that case because, Secret and Lies looks like some sort of documentary yet it’s a film rather than stylish, cinematic which in my point of view reflects to what is called humanistic approach.
It consists of simple elements that we all are related to and not too advanced with special effects or better graphics as movies made in Hollywood for instance. I strongly believe that it touches its viewers with its contents. According to Miller’s article, involving an interview with Mike Leigh, he claims that, ”I’d say that what I do is work very, very thoroughly indeed and get the actors involved from the word go to create a world that really does exist, whether we point a camera at it or not. (Miller) To make it all work, Leigh let his actors carry on with improvising while acting in order to create an environment which he relates to reality. This reflects to Rosenbaum’s quote where he asks himself why “Why, then, have I liked Secrets and Lies so much that I’ve been able to see it three times with pleasure, and found it as gripping the third time as the first? ” (Rosenbaum) It is how Leigh let his actors create an environment he looking for, says the author! In my opinion, I believe Rosenbaum is amazed about Leigh’s work because, the producer reveals how he simply does to make his movies become “independent”.
I assume that most producers scribble down a script and give it to their actors when it’s done and here Leigh does the opposite and the results prove to come out great. In this paragraph, I emphasize on the difference between Secrets and Lies in and Hollywood movies and what others say about his work. Rosenbaum argues that, ”Set Secrets and Lies alongside most recent Hollywood pictures it looks like a masterpiece, but considered in relation to the best of Leigh–say, Meantime or Grown-ups or High Hopes–or the best of recent non-Hollywood films, it looks rather thin. (Rosenbaum) As the author puts it, Secrets and Lies don’t have enough detailed information to be classified as one of Leigh’s best movies because, he claims that it not one that sticks in one’s mind. I’m of two minds about Rosenbaum’s claim that Secrets and Lies isn’t one of Leigh best movies because its lack of extra material to be considered in that category. On the one hand, I don’t think Secrets and Lies weren’t clarified enough for one to understand what is really going on.
On the other hand, I believe Leigh didn’t want to include unnecessary scenes in order to make it too long and simply erase its taste for some audience to be able to watch more than once. Still I strongly believe that some find Secrets and Lies as their favourite depending on their interests. Especially for those who relate it to their own environments in real life. I’m going to look at the race issue which most viewers regard as a main concept and also was on how Mike Leigh himself, responds to this during an interview.
When asked if Secrets and Lies emphases on a race aspect, Mike Leigh replies, it’s not what he focuses on and he also indicates that its only idiots who do think that way about the fact that Hortense is black and Cynthia is white because, some don’t even know that it is 1996 and people have learned to live with the race issue behind in some societies. In fact, he backs up his statement describing Hortense’s character stating that, “As you get to know her, you simply forget that she’s black because you get to know her and it ceases to be an issue. (Miller) I see Leigh’s point on the race aspect here because, it is 1996 when Secret and Lies came out and at that time, some societies consists of mixed races where racism is limited to a minimum point. Perhaps he wanted to point out the fact that Secrets and Lies was about other issues rather than race. Hortense had something to do which was to find her birth mother and try to find out the truth. What happened to her real father? Cynthia did want to get further on that case other than finally accepting Hortense as her daughter.
I assume she felt ashamed of whatever happened and wanted to keep that away from Hortense. Perhaps she didn’t want to upset Hortense by telling her the story nor herself. A quote from Boston Review states that, “In fact, a week before Leigh’s film opened in Boston, the local news was filled with stories about the reunion of just such a daughter and her birth mother-an Irish Catholic woman with two small children who had been raped in the early 1960s by a Black man. (Stone) This brings curiosity to my mind why the author gave this example? Is it because he was reflecting this to a race aspect or he wanted to lead the reader to point that Cynthia was raped and that’s how she got Hortense. In my opinion, Alan Stone tries to give an example in which he signalling the similarity of Secrets and Lies and what he read in the newspaper. I can’t really tell if the author what his message about this statement.
Was it because he related what he read in the newspaper to Secrets and Lies about the reunion of white mother and the adopted daughter? Or what I mentioned earlier? I assume he focused on both terms. I going to look at the scenes in Secrets and Lies as they reflect to the paragraph above and why they are very good for not only me but also for those who think they familiarize to them in terms of what they have experienced or what they have seen in real life.
Mike Leigh struggles to make sure the audience understands the film and he claims during an interview that, “I go to enough trouble to make sure that you do understand — in the scenes where Morris is taking photographs — the whole spectrum of society, the various kinds of people and various skin colours. ” (Miller) He brings a closer picture of reality rather than stylish, cinematic so that people relate to it in comparison to movies made by gigantic industries such as Hollywood.
He also reflects on how the environment looks like, people who live in it as shown when Morris takes pictures of different folks with different skin colours. In this case, it was filmed in London and according to me, that’s how the society looks like over there. Leigh ignores the race aspect in Secret and Lies because in this kind of society, people living in this environment have learned to live with it and it doesn’t affect many as it’s a mixed society with different ethnicities. In this paragraph, I focus on actors and their characters in Secrets and Lies in comparison to what most people go through in real life.
Author Rosenbaum summarizes Secrets and Lies to a dysfunctional family seeking mutual acceptance in an example in the movie where he claims that, “Cynthia is a mess, barrelling her way through the story, but it’s her messiness that ultimately exposes the family wounds and therefore allows them to begin to heal. ”(Rosenbaum) The author Alan A. Stone also comments that, ”The premise of healing through giving up Secrets and Lies produces a scene that unifies the characters and leads to a
Language Analysis essay help for free: essay help for free
This opinion piece was written to the parents of a local sporting club in response to poor behaviour of spectators. An added concern was the difficulty of attracting volunteers to the club. The article, ‘A word from our coach’ was written by Coach Sam in the Local Sports Club, ‘Club News’, newsletter. Sam contends that some parents are behaving so badly at children’s matches that it is adversely affecting the club. The author has both a professional and personal involvement in this issue. As a coach he must deal with all the facets that poor behaviour by parents towards children’s sporting commitments.
This includes witnessing parents verbally abusing their children, the other teammates and all adults involved in the club. As a sportsman who is passionate about netball Sam is disgusted and shocked by how some parents lack sportsmanship. While the tone of this article is critical and contemptuous, Sam utilises a reasoned and logical approach to structuring his argument. The style is formal and accessible to the parent readers and he hopes to gain their support in being more sportsmen like. The reader is initially drawn to the article with the inclusive and neutrally phrased headline. Our coach’ positions the reader to know that they are reading something that is relevant to them and by a familiar person. The use of ‘A word’ acts as a safe and interesting persuasive strategy to make the reader peacefully begin to read the article. The attached cartoon by Jeff Parker, demonstrates the use of humour in the pun associated with an ass acting poorly at a children’s sports match. He is wearing a t-shirt that reads to explain his aggressive attitude towards winning in sport.
The expressions on the faces in the crowd are shocked and angered. The referee is showing annoyance at the verbal abuse by the parent and the face of the player shows embarrassment and horror. Another parent in the crowd is stating that he wishes “these sports-aggressive parents could see themselves as we do” in a speech bubble. The cartoon reflects a similarly judgemental tone as used in the written opinion piece by the coach. Parker hopes to persuade the reader to see the effect that poor behaviour by parents has on other members of the club.
Ways in Which Zimbabwe Has Tried my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
This has been showcased in areas such as education, culture and religion. This form of discrimination has been the norm across all races, creeds, nationalities etc. The gender disparity that was now a norm was indoctrinated in the female kind through socialization in the home, community, schools, churches and almost everywhere they existed. Haralambos and Holborn, 2008 refer to gender as the human traits linked by culture to each sex. Using the education system of Zimbabwe as a case study, a number of ways have been identified that construct gender inequality.
Subrahmanian, 2003 refers to gender equality in this context as ensuring educational equality between boys and girls. Firstly and possibly most importantly is the issue of pregnancy in schools. It was the norm that all girls that fell pregnant while at school would be expelled as soon as it was found out. This was a disadvantage to the girl child as she alone would be affected by the decision, whereas her male counterpart would be allowed to continue and finish school.
The Zimbabwe Education Act (Chapter 25:04) of 1996 stipulates that every child has the exclusive right to education and especially at the basic level, but this has not been taken into consideration in the past. This is a mirror image of the adult ideals that women should be at home raising children and not out in the world earning a living. This kind of gender inequality is also seen in the representation of teaching staff itself; it is noted that in most instances females are the teaching staff and males hold the higher offices of Headmastership and Vice Chancellorship.
The names of the higher level positions too were gender biased, being referred to as head’masters’, school’masters’, sports’masters’ etc without taking into consideration that women too could hold such positions. Pre-colonial legislation had not been addressed therefore you would find that female teachers (as well as other positions) were given far lesser remuneration than their male counterparts. This was perceived as a norm, yet what they taught or the work they did was exactly the same.
The Labour Relations Act introduced in 1985, states that “no employer should discriminate against any employee on the grounds of race, tribe or place of origin, political opinion, colour, creed or sex. ” This means that women should have the same opportunities as men in the educational system. It was also noted that women were not paid as well as the male counterparts; this disadvantaged women gravely and impacted on the number of females in the educational environment. Another construct that promoted gender inequality in the education system is the roles that are depicted in the texts used in schools.
Women are represented as child bearers, cooks, cleaners, maids, nannies, and generally lower in society than men. As early as elementary learning, children are taught to separate their gender traits accordingly, boys play in the sand box, build blocks while girls are given dolls and are encouraged to play act at preparing meals for the boys (who will later be the fathers and bread winners of the homes). In higher education, girls are encouraged to take up subjects such as fashion and fabrics, home economics and arts while boys are pushed towards mathematics, chemistry and physics.
This is a subtle way in which girls are socialized into their “lower” female roles. Instructional texts authored by females were also limited in the curriculum which would mean that male authored texts were considered authorities more than female authored texts. It is apparent that the education system was also dominant in perpetuating the gender inequality in that there was no special attention given to trying to balance the number of male students and female students in schools.
Asses the Contribution of Functionalism to Our Understanding of the Role of Education need essay help: need essay help
Functionalist views are based on that society is a system of interdependent parts held together by a shared culture or consensus. They believe that every part of society performs functions that help keep society running effectively. They use the example of a body to explain the way society runs as each part of our body has to work together in order for us to stay alive this is the same as society according to a functionalist. Education according to Emilie Durkheim (1903) consists of two main functions, creating social solidarity and teaching specialist skills.
Social solidarity is the sense of being part of a group or society. Functionalists believe this is key to making education run accordingly as without social solidarity people would only self indulge in their own desires. Education helps to create social solidarity as it helps transmit societies culture, beliefs and values from ‘generation to generation‘keeping society running correspondingly. Schools also act in preparing children for society in real life by teaching the concepts of working together with people you do not always no. his links with working as in work you have to work coherently with people who you will not know. Specialist skills are having the necessary skills to perform their role in education to the ‘bride way’ towards working life. Education helps children prepare for this through teaching children in different a range of subjects which they will then come to specialise in the subjects they are good in which will in turn help them earn money in society in later life.
Education also according to functionalists gives all children an equal opportunity to develop on their own individual talents also known as meritocracy which is achieving through your own effort. Davis and Moore (1945) argue that education sorts children into their future educational roles by sorting their ‘aptitudes’ and ‘abilities’ which also links to social solidarity as to do certain jobs you need the necessary qualification and experience. However there are criticisms of functionalists and education.
Melvin Tumin (1953) put forward a circular argument and criticises David and Moore by putting forward such questions as ‘how do we know what job is more important? ’ answer ‘because it’s highly Rewarded’ and why are some jobs higher rewarded than others? ’ answer ‘because they are more important’. Marxists believe that society only transmits the ideology of the ruling class therefore it disadvantages the working classes in education. One example is that Marxists prepare the working class for there jobs through education therefore it is only transmitting values of the ruling class.
Also Marxists believe that the state is controlled by the ruling classes who transmit the ideology state apparatus which is that it maintains control through controlling people’s ideas, values and beliefs through religion, mass media and the education system. This criticises the functionalist view as social solidarity is meant to transmit these values and beliefs which according to Marxists are only means to control the working class. Meritocracy according to Marxists is a myth as we are controlled by the higher classes and we cannot achieve our status we ascribe our status.
Another big criticism of functionalism in education is that functionalists believe that everybody at school behaves and accepts all that is taught when this is not the true case. It does not explain why some people come to fail examinations if everybody works in a general ‘consensus’. Dennis Wrong (1961) refers to this as ‘puppets in society’. The new right believe that the state fails to prepare the young for work as the state discourages choice and competition.
Another disadvantage is that functionalists cannot explain under-achievement and inequality of opportunity in education. In conclusion Functionalism has a good general understanding of Education but it has quite obvious flaws as not everybody is going to get on in society so it is impossible to have a general consensus. Also the disadvantages of Functionalism in education seem to out weigh the positives therefore functionalism does not give a real positive understanding of education.
Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy homework essay help: homework essay help
Products and services available Mobile Money Transfer In Kenya money transfer is mainly done through the use of mobile phones. This was an initiative of Safaricom, a multimillion shillings company in Kenya. Mobile money transfer services in Kenya are now provided by Safaricom (M-PESA) an Airtel (ZAP). M-PESA being the oldest has genericised and is now generally used to refer to mobile money transfer services even by other companies other than Safaricom Mobile ATM
With the introduction of mobile money services for the unbanked, operators are now looking for efficient ways to roll out and manage distribution networks that can support cash-in and cash-out. Unlike traditional ATM, sicap Mobile ATM have been specially engineered to connect to mobile money platforms and provide bank grade ATM quality. In Hungary, Vodafone allows cash or bank card payments of monthly phone bills.  The Hungarian market is one where direct debits are not standard practice, so the facility eases the burden of queuing for the postpaid half of Vodafone’s subscriber base in Hungary.
Mobile ticketing Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately, by presenting their Mobile vouchers, coupons and loyalty cards Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers, coupons, and loyalty cards. These items are represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone. A customer presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale receives the same benefits as if they had the traditional token.
Stores may send coupons to customers usinglocation-based services to determine when the customer is nearby. Content purchase and delivery Currently, mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones, wallpapers, and games for mobile phones. The convergence of mobile phones, portable audio players, and video players into a single device is increasing the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. The download speeds available with 4G networks make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds.
Location-based services The location of the mobile phone user is an important piece of information used during mobile commerce or m-commerce transactions. Knowing the location of the user allows for location-based services such as: * Local discount offers * Local weather * Tracking and monitoring of people Information services A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. These services include: * News * Stock quotes * Sports scores * Financial records * Traffic reporting
Customized traffic information, based on a user’s actual travel patterns, can be sent to a mobile device. This customized data is more useful than a generic traffic-report broadcast, but was impractical before the invention of modern mobile devices due to the bandwidth requirements. Mobile banking Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their customers to access account information and make transactions, such as purchasing stocks, remitting money. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking, or M-Banking. Mobile StoreFront
The reinvention of the mobile phone as a touch sensitive handheld computer has for the first time made mobile commerce practically feasible. ‘According to ABI Research, mobile is going to get a lot bigger in the ecommerce market. The research firm is predicting that in 2015, $119bn worth of goods and services will be purchased via a mobile phone. ‘ Mobile brokerage Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular and are known as Mobile Brokerage. They allow the subscriber to react to market developments in a timely fashion and irrespective of their physical location. Auctions
Over the past three years mobile reverse auction solutions have grown in popularity. Unlike traditional auctions, the reverse auction (or low-bid auction) bills the consumer’s phone each time they place a bid. Many mobile SMS commerce solutions rely on a one-time purchase or one-time subscription; however, reverse auctions offer a high return for the mobile vendor as they require the consumer to make multiple transactions over a long period of time. Mobile Browsing Using a mobile browser—a World Wide Web browser on a mobile device—customers can shop online without having to be at their personal computer.
Mobile Purchase Catalog merchants can accept orders from customers electronically, via the customer’s mobile device. In some cases, the merchant may even deliver the catalog electronically, rather than mailing a paper catalog to the customer. Some merchants provide mobile websites that are customized for the smaller screen and limited user interface of a mobile device. Mobile marketing and advertising In the context of mobile commerce, mobile marketing refers to marketing sent to mobile devices. Companies have reported that they see better response from mobile marketing campaigns than from traditional campaigns.
International Business Globalization english essay help: english essay help
The shipping costs are much less than it would be to perform these tasks in one country. This is called absolute advantage, where someone is great at one thing. With this in mind you will get a product that has the best resources available at the lowest cost, which is comparative advantage. Finally, specialization is where everyone is doing what they do best and pulling their resources together to make one incredible product. Q-2. Use the theory of comparative advantage to explain the way in which Logitech has configured its global operations.
Why does the company manufacture in China and Taiwan, undertake basic R&D in California and Switzerland, design products in Ireland, and coordinate marketing and operations from California? ANSW. Logitech is very brilliant when it comes to comparative advantage. It does basic R&D work in Switzerland with 200 employees, its headquarters are in Fremont, California with 450 employees as well as some R&D, the ergonomic designs are developed in Ireland, and the products are manufactured in Taiwan and China.
The comparative advantage is that it is the most cost effective to break up the business in many different countries that specialize in a certain job. Q-3. Who creates more value for Logitech, the 650 people it employs in Fremont and Switzerland, or the 4,000 employees at its Chinese factory? What are the implications of this observation for the argument that free trade is beneficial? ANSW. The 650 employees in Fremont, California and Switzerland create more value for Logitech. It is where all of the R&D and designs are developed.
The 4,000 employees of China add $3 to the Wanda product, which is almost nothing in comparison to the remaining $37. Free trade is beneficial because labour costs can be brought way down. O-4Why do you think the company decided to shift its corporate headquarters from Switzerland to Fremont? ANSW. America specializes in R&D. The headquarters were moved because of the company’s global marketing, finance, and logistics operations. That is what Americans do best. O-5To what extent can Porter’s diamond help explain the choice of Taiwan as a major manufacturing site for Logitech?
ANSWThere are four parts to Porter’s diamond: (1) factor of endowments, which is a nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or the infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry; (2) demand conditions, which is the nature of home demand for the industry’s product or service; (3) relating and supporting industries, which is the presence or absence of supplier industries and related industries that are internationally competitive; (4) firm strategy, structure, and rivalry, which are the conditions governing how companies are created, organized, and managed and the nature of domestic rivalry.
Taiwan’s factor of endowments was that it had a science-based Industrial Park in Hsinchu. The demand conditions were that the Taiwanese were already trained to deal with technology. The relating and supporting industries were that Taiwan was the best as building technology as the lowest cost. The firm strategy, structure, and rivalry were that Taiwan had no domestic rivalry; they provided the lowest cost. Q-6Why do you think China is now a favored location for so much high technology manufacturing activity? How will China’s increasing involvement in global trade help that country?
How will it help the world’s developed economies? What potential problems are associated with moving work to China? ANSW Chinese labourers are some of the cheapest in the world. Even though the workers are not treated very well, they are starting to rise up and demand more wages. The increase in foreign trade for China has helped to increase their economy. The world’s developed economies will benefit because of the globalization of production. The potential problems are that Americans are losing jobs to foreign markets. Case 2 Q. what do you think are the economic benefit of liberalizing the EU energy market? Who stands to gain the most from liberalization? The economic benefits of liberalizing the EU energy are followings. First, greater efficiency leads to lower costs and prices, which is improving competitiveness. It is also crucial for companies that are competing in a more global market. As liberalization and the introduction of competition becomes more widespread across Europe this should lead to further efficiency gains, costs reductions and the potential for lower prices.
A completely open European market will allow all consumers to benefit from the cheapest available sources of energy and will drive companies’ costs down based on economic scales. Second, it ensures a secure and stable energy supply in Europe. It can stimulate the competition between the energy companies and attracts more investments on the European internal energy network. For instance, when Russia and Ukraine “show off” their gas line’s time once more, the EU energy market is helpful in reducing Eastern European country energy supply risk such as Bulgarian and Hungary’s shortage of energy.
Moreover, it increases the ability to fight with the Russian energy monopoly among their energy companies. In conclusion, competition ensures competitive prices. It is able to balance the issues of competition, energy security and environment protection in the EU energy market. For most industries, energy is essential to the cost base and competitiveness. The European industries compete internationally. Increase in energy costs cannot be transferred to customers without risking reduction in market share. Once EU’s energy market can be established, energy’s cost and the price will be dropped largely.
The energy exporting country and the country of consumption will obtain the high income. 2. What are the implications of liberalization for energy producers in the EU? How will the environment they face change after liberalization? What actions will they have to take? ANSW: Implications: Replace the markets of its 27 member states with a single continent wide market for electricity and gas. The majority market shares would be acquired and dominated by a large single enterprise eg: Electric de France. Changes in environment after liberalization: There are a lot of acquisitions and mergers in the energy markets.
Politicians and governments try to protect their firms from other competitions with regulations. Bigger firms will try to acquire firms in local country. Actions: Government would impose conditions to stop foreign companies from acquiring local companies. The local authorities would try to protect the local company advantages. 3. Why is the de-integration of large energy companies seen as such an important part of any attempt to liberalize the EU energy market? ANSW: I think that de-integration of the bigger companies will encourage the smaller companies to be more active and permit the market to be fair and equal.
It could also increase affordability and dependability of the service by permitting new introduction of new operators within the energy market. Q-4 why do you think progress towards the liberalization of the EU energy market has been fairly slow so far? ANSW. May be this could be relevant For several years now the European Union, the largest regional trading block in the world, has been trying to liberalize its energy market, replacing the markets of its 27 member states with a single continent wide market for electricity and gas.
The first phase of liberalization went into effect in June 2007. When fully implemented, the ability of energy producers to sell electricity and gas across national borders will be improved, increasing competition. The road toward the creation of a single EU energy market, however, has been anything but easy. Many national markets are dominated by a single enterprise, often a former state owned utility. Electricity de France, for example, has an 87 percent share of that country’s electricity market. Injecting competition into such concentrated markets will prove difficult.
To complicate matters, most of these utilities are vertically integrated, producing, transmitting, and selling power. These vertically integrated producers have little interest in letting other utilities use their transmission grids to sell power to end users, or in buying power from other producers. For the full benefits of competition to take hold, the EU recognizes that utilities need to be split into generation, transmission, and marketing companies so that the business of selling energy can be separated from the businesses of producing it and transmitting it.
Only then, so the thinking goes, will independent power marketing companies be able to buy energy from the cheapest source, whether it is within national borders or else where in the EU, and resell it to consumers, thereby promoting competition. For now, efforts to mandate the disintegration of utilities are some way off. Indeed, in February 2007 national energy ministers from the different EU states rejected a call from the European Commission, the top competition body in the EU, to break apart utilities.
The Un and Their Involvement in the Rwandan Genocide free college essay help: free college essay help
The UN and their Role in the Genocide of Rwanda Introduction: In this paper I will give a brief history of the Genocide in Rwanda, and then I will focus on one key question: What responsibilities did UNAMIR have to help, and did they successfully accomplish those responsiblities? History of Rwanda: After the start of the First World War the Belgians moved eastward and took over Ruanda-Urundi (The colonies that were previously occupied by the Germans). In 1924, the League of Nations officially awarded that land to the Belgians.
The Belgians saw the differences and problems between the Hutus (the lower class farmers) and the Tutsis (mostly upper class herdsmen), and they decided to give control of the country over to the Tutsis. From then on the Tutsis began to abuse their power and they were dominant and abusive to the Hutus. In 1933 all citizens were required to have racial identity cards, which separated the two races even more. July 1962, Ruanda-Urundi gained their independence. The Urundi and Rwanda governments split and each formed separate countries.
Urundi became a monarchy and changed its name to Burundi. Rwanda continued to have ethnic struggles and there was much violence. The first president elected was of the Hutu race. His name was Gregoire Kayibanda; after the election the Tutsis were made out to be the bad guys, and they were blamed for everything. Things continued to get worse for the Tutsis, and in December 1963, after a few Tutsi militias entered into Rwanda, 14’000 Tutsis were brutally murdered. In 1973, Kayibanda was removed from the Government and Juvenal Habyarimana was put in as the new president.
Habyarimana was very much anti-Tutsi and in 1986 he closed the Rwandan boarders to all Tutsis and even moderate Hutus. As opposition to the Habyarimana regime many Tutsi officers from the Ugandan army, grouped up with Rwandan Tutsis and they formed the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front). On October 1, 1990, the officers deserted their army with all weapons and equipment in hand and moved into Southern Rwanda. This act begun what would be 4 years of the worst genocide in history. After the invasion of Southern Rwanda, the RPF moved North-East.
Habyarimana defeated them with the aid of French paratroopers, provided by President Mitterrand. In December of 1990, an extremist newspaper prints “The Hutu Ten Commandments” which show the extreme hatred that the Hutu people had for the Tutsis. From that time on, the slaughtering of Tutsis continued, but there was pressure from many different countries for Habyarimana to make peace with the RPF and the Tutsi people. In 1993, there was a meeting held in Arusha, Tanzania with the hope of bringing peace to all; this was when the “Arusha Accord” was established.
The “Arusha Accord” officially states that the war is over and that the remaining Tutsi refugees may return to Rwanda. The UN is called in to make sure that everything is carried out smoothly and they appoint a chapter 6 peace keeping force, UNIMAR, to see that out. On the 6th of April, 1994, the airplane carrying President Habyarimana and the President of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, was shot down. Both Presidents were killed. This marked the end of negotiations for peace and, to put it lightly, all hell broke loose in Rwanda.
Between April 6th and the beginning of July, 1994 a genocide occurred that is easily one of the biggest disasters in the history of the civilized world. UNAMIR: The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was deployed during the time that peace talks were taking place. It was a Chapter 6 UN mission and was sent to keep the peace between the two rivaling groups, oversee government activities, and ensure safety until elections took place. The United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) also played a role in the mission for Rwanda and they were treated as a Sector within UNAMIR.
UNOMUR was stationed in Kabale, which was on the Ugandan side of the Uganda/Rwanda border opposite the area under RPF control; they were to monitor the flow of men, arms, and supplies from Uganda to the RPF in Rwanda. Their force consisted of MILOBs. A Chapter 6 mission mandate states: “First of all, seek a resolution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their choice”.
That was another major problem, because when the killing was going on the troops were not allowed to defend themselves because they were only there to enforce peace by negotiation and not by way of force, as stated by the mandate. The ROE also stated that the military personnel were to, “Only fire when fired upon. ” UNAMIR was an ill-equipped, undermanned, and severely limited mission. The troops in Rwanda totaled 2’584 people; they had virtually no means of transportation, very limited supplies, and very few weapons.
Most of the equipment that they had was out-dated and virtually unusable. The mission had to put in requests for everything ranging from toilet paper to ammunition; much of which was never provided. This was a large part of what made UNAMIR a complete failure. There was a complete lack of attention to the mission in Rwanda and no country wanted to provide resources to help. The reason that they could get no reinforcements or supplies was because of the unwillingness of Western countries to contribute anything.
The exception to that is Belgium, who contributed most of the troops that were deployed into Rwanda. The different countries around the world saw the mission in Rwanda as a sideshow to the other things that were going on, for example, in the former Yugoslavia, in Somalia, etc. This unwillingness and unconcern was what allowed the Genocide to occur and what facilitated the deaths of 800,000 people in Rwanda. There are many reasons why UNAMIR failed, most of which I have attempted to explain, but it is impossible to point the finger at just one group.
There were many different factors that contributed to the Genocide. UNAMIR itself tried as hard as it could under the limited supplies and the mandate that they had. Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire did what he could with what he had, and he with the small contingent that he had saved the lives of many, but had he been given the things that he needed many thousands more could have been saved. This was not an organization, or a mission that failed; it was the failure of humanity.
One’s Personality as Victim and Bully academic essay help: academic essay help
How does bullying affect the development of one’s personality as victim and bully? In my own experience and self analysis, I believe that the most affected personality traits of a bullying victim is the self esteem. People being bullied suffers lot’s of irony on their traits that bullies often use to attack them. Bullies often find an easy target on those people who seems weak and are not able to defend themselves. However there were bullying victims who are not passive, those who are also hot-tempered and often retalliate when a bully or bullies attack them resulting into fist fight and other form of physical confrontation.
So aside from psychological torments, bullying may also lead to physical attack and or injury. As I mentioned, I was once a bullying victim, and the changes that I’ve seen to myself as I’ve remembered is that, there were times that I’m going through self agonizing moments of comparing myself to those people whom I’ve thought at that time would be a better me, if in case I have their characteristics and often thought that it will resolve my bullying problem.
Unfortunately I’m also a kind of person who wants to keeps my problems to myself and don’t want to bother anyone in dealing with my problems. At some point I’ve become some kind of an antisocial person, wherein I only find refuge within myselft and I often distance myself to other people because I thought that they’ll just find something in me that is laughable and that they will humiliate me infront of others.
Luckily, maturity starts kicking in, during late high school days, and to date, I can say that I’ve already managed to fully accept myself, and if ever people will bully me on my shortcomings and on my imperfections, it won’t matter anymore, thanks to people that have shown me that I’m worthy of simply being me. On the other hand, the bullies may have been suffering a greater effect or some sort of consequences/punishments for their act. I have once read that being a bully is one of an indication that a person is suffering some sort of psychological disorder and they may actually need help from professionals and also from their parents.
Bullies may have been suffering some sort of insecurities which they may not be able to recognize or realize within themselves and are just bullying others to cover up their shortcomings. They sometimes often bully others to show their strength and also to be accepted by their peers. I have also read that if bullies, won’t be properly guided, they may are more susceptible to have vices, drug abuse and or be involved on criminal acts at an early age or later in their life.
Invitation to Sociology Critical Discussion of Text extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology
Invitation to Sociology Critical Discussion of text The term “Culture Shock” is used by anthropologists to describe the way people react and their response to a new culture. Peter L. Berger the author of the article uses an example of a person’s first encounter with polygamy, puberty rites, or the way a car is driven to explain the kind of reaction and shock they may have. It’s a good method because it shows that anthropology has a lot of new things to learn and it is not as basic as it may seem. Sociology is about going the extra mile into what is accepted in the culture and learning that everything has different meanings.
Berger states that an sociologist’s perspective can be interpret as, “seeing through” or “looking behind”. I for one think this is a great way to explain the fundamentals of sociology because it shows that they are always looking further into straight forward subjects. Berger also uses love as an example that he looks deeper into. Berger says “It is assumed that men and women marry because they are in love”(pg. 8), but as a sociologist he looked behind that and became aware that most people fall in love are usually in the same class, make the same amount of money have the same education and religious background.
This is a good example because it explains that once you investigate much further into the behavior of love, you as the reader notice that love doesn’t create the relationship, it is achieved after the relationship has been fully planned out thoroughly. Sociologist can be described as using “debunking” techniques. They look further into what is accepted into society. This technique helps people understand the social systems they are dealing with and for one it defiantly gave me a better understand of culture shock too.
Eligibility, Payment, and Billing Procedures essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers
Factors for Patient Eligibility There are many different factors that determine eligibility for patient with employer-sponsored benefits. For example if an employee that works full-time changes to part time employment, the coverage may end or change drastically. Many facilities only provide coverage to employees that are employed full time. Procedures for Non-coverage
There are appropriate steps to take when insurance does not cover a planned service. Insured patients’ policies require a facility to discuss with them when a service is not covered and of their responsibility for any accrued charges. Some payers require a physician to use a specific form when notifying a patient. For example, many physicians use what is called a financial agreement form before the services are given.
In this case, the patient is informed of the financial obligation and must sign the form to prove that they have been informed before the services can be provided. The forms may contain information such as what type of service is to be performed, an estimated charge, the date that the service is planned, and the reasoning why it is not covered. The bottom of the form would have a statement that requires the patient to sign stating that they acknowledge and understand all of the above information.
Importance of Patient Knowledge In my opinion it is extremely important for a patient to understand their obligation before receiving services because that patient has the right to refuse that responsibility along with the service. A patient should always be aware of the coverage and non-coverage of their insurance benefits. Most people are willing to pay for preventative services, as the service is a great idea. Consequences
If the financial obligations are not properly disclosed either to the patient or the provider; there can be legal action. For example, if a provider does not inform a patient that their services are not covered and the patient is unaware that they have accrued a balance, a patient has the right to bring a legal suit against the provider (if the insurance company doesn’t do so themselves). Another consequence can lead to the provider losing patients.
Organisational Study About Varroc Engineering academic essay help: academic essay help
Our prototyping facility allows us to develop new valves for testing quickly and at low cost. We have installed testing equipment for complete testing of engines, and simulation software to ensure complete development and testing facilities for our customers. Our manufacturing set up is continually upgraded with the latest advancements and technologies in engine valve manufacturing. Facilities like extrusion, high speed plating, camera based inspection, CBN grinding and turning technology, etc. are already operational. The division is investing in low cost automation with a view to increase productivity while maintaining the zero ppm level.
New materials are being developed with steel mills. These measures will further improve our cost competitiveness in the future. 16 17 CBN Grinding Machine In-process Automation Catalytic Converters Catalytic Converters Reducing emissions from vehicles has become necessary in today’s world where people are becoming more mobile, even as our stocks of fossil fuels deplete, and evidence of global warming becomes clearer. Varroc as an organization is very conscious about preserving the environment, hence in order to contribute to emission levels reduction of vehicles, Varroc initiated the production of catalytic converters.
The Catalytic Converters unit is the third entity in Varroc’s Metallic Business group. We are actively engaged in helping to reduce vehicular emissions through a technology tie-up with Umicore for manufacturing catalytic converters. We use stringent quality processes and latest equipments like the Inductively Coupled Plasma to ensure that the chemical composition of the catalytic converters is accurate to minimize the array of emissions from any internal combustion engine. Varroc’s Catalytic converters have proven to be reliable and effective in reducing tailpipe emissions for all it’s clients.
Automated Winding Machine CMM for Starter Motor Part Inspection 22 23 Automated Headlight Assembly Electrical Business In modern vehicles millions of pieces of information are exchanged among the various electric and electronic components, while selected information is presented to the driver. There is a constant demand for comprehensive information management in a vehicle and Varroc helps the driver to be ‘Always On’. We concentrate on projects that make full use of our core competencies in systems integration and precision manufacturing processes.
Varroc’s design team finds new and innovative ways to create solutions to complex problems. The development process includes simulations so that we can provide customers with data that can improve durability. Our range of manufacturing processes and innovative materials can be adapted to customer timing and specifications. All Varroc Polymer Automated Assembly Operation 32 33 Automatic Conveyer Line Automated Paint Shop Automated Seat Moulding Line Polishing Process manufacturing facilities are TS 16949 certified. Our plants follow ISO 14001 and are OHSAS 18001 compliant.
At Varroc we follow lean manufacturing practices, which eliminate waste, streamline processes, and reduce overall cost. Varroc Polymers can help automakers meet their needs more efficiently thanks to our ability to deliver according to the OEM’s need, whether through in-line vehicle sequencing, off-line vehicle sequencing, or by establishing a focused factory near a vehicle manufacturer’s assembly facility. Innovation is a day-to-day activity at Varroc. The thrust is on environmental responsibility, developing technologies, reducing weight and thus improving fuel economy.
We start with understanding our client’s Brand & its end consumers. We then engage with our clients in order to understand their latent and sometimes unarticulated needs. Then, design teams work with internal and customer functional groups to define engineering requirements, forms and finishes. Understanding how future vehicles will be shaped by consumer trends, OEM’s need for brand differentiation, and government regulation is at the heart of what we do. The continuing success of vehicle manufacturers depends on their ability to respond quickly to the rapidly changing marketplace.
Should Richer Nations Help Poorer Nations common app essay help: common app essay help
However, it is not possible for rich nations to stop giving aid as poor nations will be unable to survive on its own. Rich nations should stop giving aid to poorer nations as this can create over-reliance. Due to the constant help given by rich nations, government of poorer nations may end up not doing anything to help its country and allow richer nations to help them. This will result in them being unable to be independent and always have to rely on richer nations for aid.
Problems may start surfacing during economic crisis where richer nations may cut down the amount of aid to help their own countries. During economic crisis, rich nations will demand lesser of poor nations’ exports, leading to a fall in income for poor nations. Coupled with a fall in aid, poor nations may experience recession and since poor nations are used to getting aid from rich nations, they may be unable to get out of recession until rich nations start to give more aid. Thus, rich nations should try and stop giving aid to poorer nations so that poorer nations will start to rely on themselves.
There is a reason for rich nations to think twice before giving aid to poorer nations as there are corrupt governments which misuse the aid given to them. Instead of effectively using the aid to alleviate the suffering of those in poverty, aid is used for military purposes. In May the Burmese government hindered international relief efforts after the most damaging cyclone in its history, which killed an estimated 130,000. Burma has also received extensive military aid from India and China in the past. According to some estimates, Burma has received more than US$200 million in military aid from India.
In the Corruption Perceptions Index Report for 2010 released by Transparency International, Burma ranks second to the bottom among 176 countries surveyed worldwide by the international corruption watchdog. Due to such rampant corruption in Burma, the people are still suffering from lack of food, water and amenities. This leads to rich nations asking themselves whether the aid should be given at all, if it is not put to good use. However, rich nations canoot let the poor nations survive on their own due to many reasons. Rich nations will be able to improve their economies if they provide aid for poor nations.
By helping poor nations, they will be able to develop and enabling the citizens to have higher standard of living. When this happens, their demand for goods will increase and they will start importing from other countries or producing their own goods. This will benefit rich nations as their exports will increase leading to them getting richer while poor nations will start to become more developed. The GNI(PPP) per capita for Sub-Saharan Africa (which composed of 45 countries including Somalia and Ethiopia) has been rising over the years from US$2164 in 2008 to US$2242 in 2010.
This shows that aid is useful in helping the country’s economy as it enables the gross national income to rise and enable the citizens to have higher standard of living. Thus, rich nations should not stop giving aid as it will result in the worsening of the problem of poverty in poor nations. Rich countries cannot simply let the poor countries fend for themselves as they lack the resources to fight poverty. They absolutely need external help to provide resources and knowledge in order to begin the fight to alleviate poverty.
As South Asians lurch toward the 2015 deadline for meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), it is important to recognize their governments’ role and the need for help from rich donor nations to significantly increase spending on human development for poverty reduction. However, the South Asian governments alone cannot do it. The private sector organizations, NGOs and civil society have to come forward to make their contribution toward meeting the important MDG goals to reduce poverty and hunger and improve health and literacy.
In Pakistan’s case in particular, the overseas Pakistanis and Pakistan’s middle class need to step forward to do their part in rebuilding the shattered lives of millions of their poor fellow citizens affected by the recent floods. The world is interlinked, each nation will have connections with other nations, therefore it may not be beneficial for rich nations to not help poor nations since there may be times when rich nations would need their help. We are all living on the earth, if we do not help poor nations, who will.
Training Plan college essay help online free: college essay help online free
Training and Mentoring Needs Due to the reorganization of the sales team and the shifting focus of the sales force, it is important that the team be educated with the tools necessary and prepared to take on this challenge. The new sales team, consisting of members from InterClean as well as members from EnviroTech, is going to need training to learn how to tackle the changes that are occurring. The current sales team is made up of three members from EnviroTech, who have excellent customer service skills with some sales experience.
They are used to creating relationships with the customer and for the most part, are knowledgeable in customer service skills. They are also used to working in a diverse team environment. Although these employees have great customer appreciation, they could use some training in sales strategies. The rest of the team is made up of employees from InterClean. These employees have excellent sales strategies and are aggressive in meeting and exceeding sales goals. They are not, however, used to working in a team environment and could use some training on their customer service skills.
By training the team in customer service, they will better learn how to serve their customers and by doing so, will hopefully help to form business relationships with the customers and increase the rate of return customers. With the amount of competition in the market today, it is important to be able to keep customers. The ability to solve problems and form relationships with customers is crucial. (Cascio, 2005) The team should also receive training in team building and interpersonal relationships. The composition of the team has changed and members of the team must learn how to cope with these changes.
By learning how to work in a team environment, they will be able to use each person’s unique skills to better service the customer. It is important to be able to ask for ideas, offer help without being asked, develop listening and feedback skills, and recognize and consider ideas of others (Cascio, 2005) Objectives of the Training Program 1. )Increase customer satisfaction ratings through the formation of business relationships 2. )Increase the rate of repeat business, while still maintaining a growth in new customer business 3. )Increase teamwork and smooth transition with new sales team
Performance Standards 1. Sales representatives must make a minimum of 10 calls per day to current customers, and a minimum of 10 calls per day to potential customers/leads. 2. Sales representatives must meet or exceed individual sales goals per quarter, as defined by their supervisor. 3. Sales representatives must treat each customer in a friendly manner and genuinely offer assistance. 4. Sales representatives must attend weekly team meetings. 5. Sales representatives must work together with fellow team members to provide what is best for the customer.
Delivery Methods, Content & Time-Frame Customer service training will be provided to the sales team through a combination of lectures and mentoring. Lectures will be given for one week during the first half of the day by hired customer service specialists who are specialize in teaching customer service skills. In these lectures, there will be group sessions to discuss customer service incidents, role play possible scenarios and utilize behavior modeling. By discussing incidents in groups, representatives will hear ideas from others that they may not have thought of on their own.
They will also be able to role play to practice their skills and actually put them into use, instead of just reading or hearing someone say it. Videos and DVD’s of customer service incidents can be used as examples in these classes. For example, Safeway requires all new trainees to watch the “lemonade stand” video, which demonstrates the use of their customer service skills used by children in a lemonade stand. By actually witnessing good customer service, representatives will be able to fully understand the concepts. Team members will be paired with a mentor from the customer service department for one month.
The representatives will be able to shadow the customer service employee, on a schedule that is discussed between them, in order to observe good customer service. By having a mentor, the sales representatives will also have a point person to come to for any questions they may have. Sales performance training will be provided to the sales team through a series of lectures and presentations on sales strategies given by the sales manager on an ongoing monthly basis. Conferences or additional classes may be given to those who may need more help.
Teamwork training will be provided to the sales team through tolerance classes, team building exercises and events, and weekly meetings. The tolerance class will be a one time event, where team building exercises and events will continue throughout the year. Weekly meetings will be held to discuss strategy and evaluate teamwork skills. Total sales will be discussed and team goals will be set in this meeting, in order to promote teamwork. Evaluation Methods Sales figures from each representative will be measured and compared to their sales goals on a quarterly basis.
This makes sure that the sales representative is working toward their goal and trying to work at a level equal to that of the performance standards. Customer satisfaction surveys will be given to customers with every third order. Some sort of incentive (10% off next order) will be given to the customer to encourage the customer to complete the survey. This will allow us to see if the customer is being treated with an appropriate level of service and respect. The number of sales made as a collaborative effort is a good way to measure the amount of teamwork that is going on in the sales team.
If there is a huge team effort, there should be an increase in the amount of sales that have been worked on by more than one representative. It can also show if one person is putting in more team effort than another. Setting up a few loyal customers as “secret shoppers” is another way to evaluate customer service. By having the customer deal with the sales representative like they normally do and subsequently filling out a standard form indicating the level of service provided, individual customer service skills for each representative can be evaluated.
By offering the customer a secret incentive, they would be more likely to comply. Feedback For the first six months, there will be monthly meeting for each individual sales representative to discuss performance with their supervisor. This will allow the supervisor to provide the representative with appropriate feedback and also allow a time for sales goals to be discussed. The ongoing weekly meetings for the sales team to discuss possible new strategies and issues regarding teamwork are also a good time for the supervisor to provide feedback.
It is important that this feedback is positive feedback for the entire team and not single out individuals, since the point of the weekly meetings is to promote teamwork. If a single individual was praised for their good work, it would provide an opportunity for competition and defeat the purpose of the weekly meeting. Performance evaluations will be given to the sales representatives every six months to discuss sales goals, accomplishments, and areas that may need work.
This is an opportunity to determine whether the representative will need additional training and/or a promotion. Incentives for exceptional performance should be given to representatives when they go above and beyond the performance standards of their position. For example, certificates for meeting sales quota/providing outstanding customer service or going out to happy hour for excellent team performance. Incentives may include: a coupon for leaving work an hour early, small gift certificate for ice cream, or a certificate to place on their desk for exceptional performance.
Supervisors must constantly be providing feedback to the representatives and praising them for using the skills learned in training. It is important to reinforce what is learned in training. At the weekly meetings, it may be a good idea to briefly go over one topic that was covered in training to keep the idea fresh in representative’s minds. Alternative Avenues Those who may need more help may be able to attend additional training classes and seminars, if the budget allows.
Representatives who continue to fail at meeting performance standards may be placed on probation. Once on probation, it may be necessary to fire that person if they continue to provide work that is not up to standards. This can be determined in performance reviews given every 6 months.
Proposal to Pursue a Career in Network and Computer Systems Administrator my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
This proposal is to encourage high school student to pursue a career in network and computer systems administrator. Scope This report present information on network and computer systems administrator, a description of the career, the advantages of the career and the reasons to pursue a career in the professional field.
Network or computer systems administrators design, install and support and organization’ LAN (local-area network), WAN (wide-area network), network segment, internet or intranet system. In this field the professional provide day to day onside administrative support for software users in a variety of work environments, including professional offices, small business, government and large corporations. There’s a wide range of skills required, and there are many paths of entry to a job as a systems administrator.
Many employers seek applicants with bachelor’s degrees, although it’s not necessarily in a computer related field. Entry level network and computer systems administrators are involved in routine maintenance and monitory of computer systems, typically working behind the scenes in an organization. After gaining experience and expertise, they often are able to advance into more senior level position. Motivation I have been interested in the It career for about two years now.
One of my family members is working in the network and computer systems administration field and he has been encouraging me to continue my education in this field. He describes his daily schedule and it has made me become interested in the field. He has been showing some of the work he and I have been enjoying the hands on practice. I started troubleshooting and diagnosing on my computer and immediate family members with my cousins help and realized that I really enjoyed doing this kind of work.
His encouragement has prompted me to continue my education to become a network and computer systems administrator. PROPOSAL High seniors should continue their education and pursue a career in network and computer administrator because: 1. Employment of the network and computer systems administrators is expected to increase by 27 percent from 2006 to 2016, that means is growing faster than the average for all occupations. 2. Median annual earnings of network and computer systems administrator were $62,130 in may of 2006 and the highest ten percent earned more than $97,080. Job Growth The job growth for computer support specialist is due to the fast development of technology. Computer networks have become an integral part of business, and demand for this profession will increase as companies continue to invest in new technologies. The extensive use of electronics and the increasing use of mobile technologies mean that more companies will use the internet to conduct business online. This growth means there will be a need for systems administrators who can help businesses use technology to communicate with employees, clients, and consumers.
Earnings The industries that employed the most network and computer systems administrators paid the following median salaries: •Wired telecommunication carriers: $65,120. •Computer systems design: $63,710. •Management of companies and enterprises: $61,600 •Elementary and secondary schools: $54,120 •Colleges and universities: $51,170 By pursuing a career in network and computer systems administrator you will be able to obtain a position after graduating from college because of the high demands for this profession and other advantages as follow: 1.
Computer systems administrators work in well-lighted, comfortable offices or computer laboratories. 2. Work in a variety of environments, including professional offices, small businesses, government organizations and large corporations. 3. Normally work about 40 hours a week and sometimes can work from home. 4. Constantly interacting with customers and fellow employees for better open communication. 5. Annual earnings are more than what average occupations make yearly. Instructions to Pursue Career in Network and Computer Systems Administrator . Research for accredited colleges and universities that offer both on campus and online degree programs 2. Talk to an Academic Counselor 3. Apply for the college 4. Apply for financial aid 5. Go to the orientation 6. Talk to an Academic Counselor, ask questions, and decide on classes 7. Register for classes 8. You are ready to start your classes to pursue a career in network and computer systems administrator! This information would presented by using Microsoft Power Point to grasp the audience attention.
With the slide presentation the audience will be able to see and hear at the same time what is being presented. I would use the visuals to keep the audience’s attention and entertained so they won’t be bored. I would have questions for students before the presentation and encourage them to listen and interact during the presentation to earn some prizes and to keep the student engaged. I don’t believe high school students can not sit and listen to a lecture for a long period of time. From my own experience I only remember presentations that had visuals and some type of interactions with the audience.
To Kill a Mockingbird admission essay help: admission essay help
Expository Essay Submit via Engrade Turn-ins Instruction: You are to write a 1000-2500 word five-paragraph expository essay on suggested topics from To Kill A Mockingbird. The notion behind expository writing is that the writer attempts to expose or reveal information that the reader is not likely to know. Your primary goal, then, is to explain a concept. Your objective in this essay is to demonstrate your proficiency at using well-chosen examples of various types. You will be expected to refer to your lecture notes, your textbooks and the class website as resources for your writing.
See below for suggested topics and structure. [pic] Essay Topics 1. Analyze the childhood world of Jem, Scout, and Dill and their relationship with Boo Radley. 2. Explore how Jem and Scout change during the course of the novel. Evaluate how they remain the same. 3. Examine what it means to be the “other” or an outsider in the novel. Place your analysis in historical context, taking into consideration the social and economic milieu of the 1930s. 4. Discuss the role of symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird. Organising and Structuring your Essay 1.
Introductory Paragraph: Begin your expository essay by raising the audience’s interest in the introductory paragraph with an anecdotal example (or another hook to get your reader interested). While using anecdotes is not the only method of building an introductory paragraph, it is fundamentally easy and an effective strategy for connecting with your audience. In the very last sentence of your introductory paragraph, state your expository thesis. Usually expository thesis statements, like the sample topics above, are expressed in the form of an opinion/claim. Yours hould be stated in the form of an opinion/claim as well. Feel free to e-mail me or meet with me to discuss your expository thesis. 2. Main Body Section: In the main body of your essay, you must use 3-4 general examples.
(Depending on your topic, you might also think of these general examples as “reasons”. ) Each of these 3-4 general examples must be developed in a separate paragraph. Within each of these 3-4 paragraphs, employ the various types of specific, supportive examples discussed both in your textbook and in the class lecture (especially the one on paragraphs). Apply some organising principle (chronological, ascending or descending importance) • Be sure that you constantly keep your expository thesis statement in mind, as that is the concept or opinion that you are trying to explain and illustrate to your audience. 3. Concluding Paragraph: Your concluding paragraph should clearly bring the essay to a close. You can use another anecdotal example, or you may use any other way to emphasise your main point in the essay. Remember not to simply restate your thesis statement. • Page length: Your essay must be between 2 ? and 3 typed, double-spaced pages.
Remember to title your essay uniquely. Don’t call it the “Expository Essay Assignment”. • Audience: your instructor, other college and university students. If you use any niche terms or particularly unusual examples you will need to explain them. • Writing Mode: primarily expository; optional analysis. • Purpose: to practise the skill of supporting claims with examples; to inform and explain. • Style Guidelines: Remember, your paper must follow the basic conventions of standard Canadian written English (correct mechanics, usage, grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure etc…) and MLA style if you do any referencing.
Scene Analysis of Porter Scene english essay help online: english essay help online
The satirical porter scene is said to be the comic relief in the grim tragedy of the play, Macbeth, by William Shakespeare. In the following essay the importance of the scene to the rest of the play will be discussed, and the actions and speech of the porter will be analyzed. Though not the most important scene of the play, the value of the porter scene cannot be overlooked. The sordid, tense and serious atmosphere of conspiracy and murder is slightly eased by the humorous speeches and actions of the porter in this scene.
The way this scene is written and the strategic placement of the scene is brilliant. This scene allows the reader to catch their breath between Macbeth’s murder of Duncan and the discovery of the body by Macduff; therefore it heightens and enriches the dramatic impact of both those scenes. This is the importance of the scene to the rest of the plot, and though it does not ‘advance’ the plot as such it gives the adjacent dramatic scenes greater dramatic effect.
The porter, who has the duty to guard the gate and welcome the visitors, is in drunken state and imagines he is the porter at the gate of hell, this is ironic because the castle of Macbeth is alike hell, due to Macbeth’s recent devilish actions. The porter, being in his drunken state while Macduff is knocking, imagines he is letting in to hell three men, a farmer, an equivocator and an English tailor. He says this about the farmer, “here’s a farmer, that hang’d himself on th’ expectation of plenty: come in, time-server, have napkins enow about you; here you’ll sweat for’t”.
He’s saying that a farmer, who accumulated corn expecting to make money, hanged himself because the prices of corn dropped. He then imagines to let in an equivocator, “Faith, here’s an equivocator, that could swear in both the scales against either scales, who committed treason enough for God’s sake, yet could not equivocate into heaven. ” Here he is saying that an equivocator (deceiver) who told many lies and half-truths in his life could not talk his way into heaven.
The porter next, imagines the third knocker as the English tailor, “Faith, here’s and English tailor, come hither for stealing out of a French hose, come in tailor, here you may roast you goose. ” He is explaining that an English tailor, who has come here for stealing cloth, may heat his iron here in hell. The porter than comes to his senses, realizing that he is not the porter at the gate of hell, “I’ll devil porter it no further. ” and opens the door for Macduff to enter. By saying this speech of his he is able to entertain the audience and calm them down after the drama of the previous scene.
But the real humor found in the porter scene, is when the porter talks about lechery (sex). “Lechery, sir, it provokes, and unprovokes; it provokes the desire, but it takes away the performance. There- fore, much drink may be said to be an equivocator with lechery: it makes him, and it mars him; it sets him on, and it takes him off; it persuades him, and dis-heartens him; makes him stand to, and not stand to; in conclusion, equivocates him in a sleep, and, giving him the lie, leaves him. He is explaining to Macbeth the effects of drink on sex. He says that alcohol provokes the desire for sex, but it takes away the performance factor. In Shakespearean times, this speech would’ve had the crowds roaring with laughter, almost making them forget the drama of the last scene, so that they could be all the more shocked when the next dramatic scene comes. The purpose of the amusing and slightly vulgar porter scene is to provide a much-needed comic relief from a monotony of tragedy in Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
It is able to calm the audience down after a very tense scene in which they had witnessed or heard of (as the act of killing King Duncan would have been off stage) the death of Duncan by Macbeth, and though it is not considered to be a turning point to the plot, I regard the scene to be important and I doubt that the play Macbeth would’ve been as effective had this scene not been included.
Philippine Airlines global history essay help: global history essay help
A copy of the Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity issued by the Civil Aeronautics Board; A copy of the transportation rates as approved by the Civil Aeronautics Board; Pictures of the plane showing the side, back and front views thereof with the company’s name and/or logo imprinted at its sides; List of operations and maintenance officials and personnel with their ATO licenses; Copy of the routes to be served and flight schedules; and such other papers or documents as may be required from time to time by the Department. VI. Evaluation of Study
SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) * Strengths * Weaknesses * Opportunities Internet Advertising People use internet worldwide and a great way of communicating is through the web, utilizing the internet could expand the reach of PAL to its potential passengers. This could help the company to attract new customers and update the current situation of the company. * Threats Close Competition There has been a stiff competition in the airline industry in the Philippines. Moreover, threats also increase due to the emerging substitutes and new entrants.
PEST (Political, Economic, VII. Plans and Programs of the study 1. Buying more aircraft – PAL signed a multibillion-dollar deal to acquire 50 new planes—the biggest aircraft order in the country’s history. 2. Planning to put up own airport Jean-Francois Laval, center, senior vice president for sales Asia of Airbus; Lucio Tan, left, chairman and CEO of Philippine Airlines, and Ramon S. Ang, president and COO of Philippine Airlines hold an Airbus A321 model aircraft in a news conference Tuesday Aug. 28, 2012, in Manila, Philippine Airlines signed a $7 billion deal to buy 54 Airbus jets.
PAL on Thursday disclosed plans to build what could be the largest airport in the Philippines. Ang said the new airport would be closer to Manila than the Clark International Airport in Pampanga, which the government is grooming to replace NAIA. The new airport, which will be exclusive to PAL and sister firm PAL Express (formerly Air Philippines), would have two parallel runways when it opens, with the option of having two more. Parallel runways mean two planes can take off and land at the same time—now impossible at NAIA’s perpendicular runways.
Ang said the new airport, together with other components of PAL’s expansion, could lead to a solution to the labor problems that have hounded the airline for more than a decade. 3. The payment gateway (7 – Eleven and Petron ) Philippine Airlines (PAL) passengers will now experience the convenience of paying for their domestic tickets 24/7 in over 766 7-Eleven retail outlets nationwide. With ECPay’s Payment Center facility in 7-Eleven stores, passengers who book online do not need to go and line up at PAL to pay for their tickets. Instead, they may simply go the nearest 7-Eleven outlet in their neighborhood.
And for the local residents, Book & Buy ticket kiosks will be installed at selected Petron gas stations. It offers a hassle-free alternative to ticket offices and travel agencies as avenues for ticket purchases. VIII. Comparison between the study and rules and regulations set by DOT Philippine Airlines follow the rules and regulations set by DOT, but they also have their own rules that exclusive for them. It is important that every passenger read the following legal notices and agree to accept and abide by the provisions stated in each notice set by PAL.
While the rules and regulations, provisions, requirements set by DOT should be followed of all airlines here in the Philippines. IX. Conclusion and Recommendations We agree that the plan of Philippine Airlines to build their own airlines can be a good chance for our country to be known internationally because they can now show to everyone that they improving their customer services; they ensuring that they provide the safest, most efficient Airline maintenance system in our country; their products are being enhanced.
They don’t just sell an airline seat or an airline ticket, they are focuses on how they treated their customers; how they satisfied their needs when it comes in the services that they offered. We recommend that in order for the Philippine airlines to hold and maintain its position in the industry the company should pursue strategies focused on increasing market penetration and product development. They should try to offer more discount promos for their customers especially when Holidays, Christmas or Vacations. They should make more strategies that will help to develop their products and services for the satisfaction of their clients.
Whats Eatting Gilbert Grape buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
In contrast Becky is a very worldly person who has traveled to various places. She is very approachable, because of all her travels she has met all kinds of different people and seems to be able to adapt very well to new people. Becky is eager to learn about Gilbert and his family, because she has absorbed similar family dynamic in Gilbert’s family. In addition, Becky curiosity drives her to learn more about Gilbert’s life. Becky and her travel experience represent many different things in the film. Becky represents the future for Gilbert.
She is something new that Gilbert has never experienced. When Becky shows up to Endora changes start happening to the small town. For example a new grocery store called Foodland and a fast food restaurant named Burger Barn introduced to the small town, and it started to change the town. The introduction of these two new place has allowed large chains to become more acceptable, than the traditional mom and pop shops, by the residents of Endora. The people of Endora realize the convenience of these two places bring to their town. This causes the new Endore and the old Endore are split in half.
Representing big changes in the town and big changes that are going to help Gilbert in guiding his life. Becky intervenes in Gilberts life in many different ways. She teaches him to not be ashamed of Arnie and his mother Bonnie. For example when Gilbert and Arnie take Becky home from Lamson’s, and Arnie helps carry her grocery and then accidently drops them. Gilbert tells Arnie to say sorry, and Becky says, “don’t be sorry, I’m not sorry, are you sorry Arnie,” but Gilbert seems to get embarrassed for the slightest mistake Arine just made.
Becky helps Gilbert understand that it is not Arnie fault, because no one has took the time to teach Arnie what is right from wrong. In addition Gilbert has no respect for his mother when taking Becky to see his house. When he talks about her he says offensive things such as beached whale, fat, and the comment about her being wedged into the house. Becky listens to him, and helps him opens his eyes to understand why his mother is that way. Becky taught Gilbert to respect his mother, and be proud of her regardless of her present situation.
Becky is proud of Gilbert’s mom for going into the police station to get Arnie out of jail, because when Bonnie walks outside the town people are out their looking at her, and even photographs her. Becky says she is very proud of her and would like to meet her. By Becky telling him what a strong woman Bonnie is for doing what she did for Arnie, it starts to make Gilbert think differently about his mother, and takes Becky to meet her. This is the first time when Gilbert and his mother show any affection towards each other. Through out the movie Becky is able to show Gilbert things that he is unable to provide for himself.
Before Becky, Gilbert has bottled up his aggression, and throughout the time he spends with Becky his aggression starts to subside. At one point of the movie Gilbert releases his anger the night Arnie did not what to take a bath. It helps Gilbert show emotion, something he thought he was not capable of, and lets him know he will not turn out like his father. In addition he starts to think outside the box, and starts thinking for himself. He allows himself to question his life, and the people around him helps him notice what is really important to him.
South African Investment my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, Caltex (an affiliate oil refinery of Texaco and SoCal) started their operations in South Africa. In this paper, I will identify and explain the benefits and the negatives as to why Caltex should build there plant in South Africa. I will also discuss how I would vote on three of the resolutions made by the stockholder’s as well as discuss how the managers of Texaco and SoCal should have responded. Finally, I will address the management responsibilities as it relates to this case.
Utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 When Texaco and SoCal decided to build there refinery plant, Caltex, in South Africa in 1977, there was much to consider. First of all, the South Africa was ruled by government upheld apartheid legislation. According to the textbook, Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases, the apartheid system, “deprived the entire Black population of all political and civil rights: They could not vote, could not hold political office, could not unionize, and had no right to freedom of assembly,” (Velasquez, p. 8). Despite this obstacle, Caltex was built and began operations. Caltex believed that by opening operations in South Africa they could provide the people with some economic opportunities that they could not have if they did not. According to the case study, “the managements of both Texaco and SoCal argued that Caltex was committed to improving the economic working conditions of its black employees and their continued presence in South Africa did not constitute and ‘endorsement’ of South Africa’s ‘policies’,” (para. 5).
By declaring that there presence in South Africa was in no way evident in support with the government policies, Caltex gave the impression of a utilitarianism approach. According to the textbook, utilitarianism is “a general term for any view that holds that actions and policies should be evaluated on the basis of the benefits and costs they will impose on society,” (Velasquez, p. 61). Caltex upheld the belief that the benefits they provide to its employees outweigh the fact that they are conducting business in an oppressed nation. In my opinion, I think that that the benefits outweighed the negatives.
Even though the South African government was morally wrong for oppressing the majority of its citizens, Caltex brought an opportunity to the region that had the promise of not only economic promise for the organization, but also the opportunity to show the people of South Africa what it is like to be equal and not discriminated. Also, there presence no doubt brought on political change and opened the eyes to the other nations of the world as to the oppression present in South Africa. If I were a stockholder in Texaco or Standard Oil
Despite of all the benefits and the promises that Caltex could have provided to the people in South Africa, the shareholders still encouraged management to withdraw their operations from South Africa. As a result, the stockholders proposed three resolutions to which they would vote on and decide the future of Caltex’s operations in South Africa. The first resolution (A) was asking Caltex to terminate its operations in South Africa. The second (B) asked Caltex not to sell to the military or police of South Africa. The last resolution (C) asked Caltex to implement the Tutu principles.
I believe that as a shareholder invested in my company, I would want to portray us as a responsible organization that will work with the host country to find a common ground rather than be charged with a serious crime. C. FAVOR. Tutu’s principles are something that I would definitely be in favor for. According to the case study, Bishop Tutu’s principles “outlined several conditions of the investment which would enable Caltex and other U. S. companies to make such a ‘positive contribution to improving economic and social opportunities’,” (para. 4). These principles would be exactly what I would like my company to portray because they contribute to human rights and equal opportunities to all races. Manager’s responses In regards to the resolutions proposed by the stockholders, I believe the manager’s responses should be as follows: A. The manager’s should have also not been in favor of this resolution. In this case, the management needs to consider that the utilitarian benefits do actually outweigh the negatives and oppression the South African government has over its citizens. B.
The manager’s responses to this resolution should be weighed very carefully. Even though they may not agree with the practices of the government and may think they are an aid to unwanted practices, they still need to consider there reputation and the consequences that can result from not being cooperative. In my opinion, the manager’s should have responded by communicating the need to work with the government to their stakeholders as well as find some type of resolution with the government. C. The management should embrace the Tutu principles.
If the management is really dedicated to the ideals and principles of their institution then they should know that these principles are about the people and their well-being. They should make any adjustments necessary to make sure the principles are upheld. Management responsibilities (i. e. , duties) In my opinion, I believe the management of a company does have the responsibility beyond ensuring a high return for its stockholders. In this case, the responsibility of the management is to make sure that the principles and business ethics that they have developed as an organization is upheld at all costs.
Just because the stockholders wanted to see their company disassociate themselves from a country that they did not see as ideal, it is still imperative that the management stick to there own ideals and principles regardless of where they are. On the other hand, I do not believe that the management of a company should look primarily to the law and to the rate of return on its investment as the ultimate criteria for deciding what investments it should make.
Companies should always consider the economical and social circumstances in the region to which they decide to invest their company. Conclusion This paper outlined why I believe the utilitarian benefits outweighed the negative circumstances for the building of Caltex in South Africa. I have also provided my own views as to what I would do if I were a stockholder in the company as well as what the manager’s should have done in response to the resolutions.
Finally, I gave my point of view as to what the manager’s responsibilities are when dealing with stockholders and investments. Caltex was in a difficult place as they had to deal with their stockholders and the government of South Africa in order to conduct their business, but the most important thing they had was the opportunity to show the oppressed people of South Africa what it was like to be an equal member of an institution.
Essay Outline free essay help online: free essay help online
Write an analytical essay: Read Khaled Hosseini’s novel, The Kite Runner, take thematic notes in response to the reading, and write a formal essay to be handed in on__________________________. The “theme” of a novel can be defined as the underlying “message” or “main point” which the work presents and tries to communicate to the reader. Directions: In order to prepare to write a well-supported, cohesive formal essay, it is essential that you take notes on the reading.
As you read the novel, concentrate your efforts on looking for references to specific themes and recording them along with your thoughts and reactions on The Kite Runner Chart. Some of the themes you could look at include: 1. Loss of innocence and coming of age 2. Redemption of the human spirit 3. Social evils and the pain of war 4. People’s inner conflicts 5. The destructive power of jealousy and insecurity 6. The lingering impact of guilt Choose one theme from the list and gather quotes for each. Record these passages with their page numbers.
Your important quotes can illustrate any of the following: • how characters grow and change over the course of the novel, both in their attitudes and their outlook on life and what you think these changes illustrate about human tendencies or why people act certain ways. • how the author uses symbolism and conflict to reveal larger ideas about human nature and how the topics and themes mentioned above connect to the characters. • how character actions, events, and ideas provide insight into larger truths about how people tend to act. What, in your opinion, is the main theme of the book The Kite Runner?
Explain your answer clearly, making specific references to the text. Your formal essay must be 800-100 words, in standard 12-point font with one-inch margins. Use a thesis sentence in the introduction and then use direct quotes from the novel in your final essay. Support your opinion with well-developed reasons based on direct evidence from the novel. Use official, standard MLA format in your written response (including heading, works cited pages, and parenthetical citations). _______________Introduction ( 5 points) ? There is an attention getting lead (beginning) ? Substantial and effective It is clear which option the writer has selected to develop ? Thesis Statement (one sentence) mentions the topic, has a clear position, and three arguments to support it. ________________Content (Body Paragraphs) (30 points) ?
There are at least five detailed paragraphs of writing ? The main ideas are clearly stated and are logical ? Paragraphs are directly related and consistent with the option selected ? Writer incorporates textual evidence (3 total examples of logical text in each para. ) ? Textual evidence is accompanied by detailed explanations ? Ideas are thoughtful, analytical and detailed The paper is not just a summary of the novel ________________Style/ Mechanics (15 points) ? Appropriate voice/ tense is used ? Textual evidence (quotes) are smoothly integrated into writing ? Word choice is interesting, varied and appropriate to purpose ? Transitions move the reader through the text ? Names are spelled and punctuated correctly ? Textual Evidence (Quotations) are cited correctly (Hosseini #). ? Evidence of the writing process (outline, organiser and edited rough draft) ? Correct spelling, grammar and punctuation ? Legibly written/ typed in pencil or blue or black ink _________________/50 points total
Apple Marketing Portfolio essay help online free: essay help online free
Apple is a multibillion-dollar company that we thought would be very useful to analyze since they have had so much success with their products and marketing techniques, specifically the Mac computers. We saw the opportunity to learn a lot from their different marketing approaches and strategies with their computers against the competitors. Steven Jobs and Stephen Wosniak created Apple in 1976. The two young entrepreneurs probably would have never thought their company would be so successful.
They first came out with a microcomputer, which was used mostly by hobbyists and had little success. It wasn’t until 1977 when Jobs and Wosniak introduced to the world the Apple 2 that they tasted any form of success. This turning point was when their business started to boom. It was the first business computer meant for at home use. Following the Apple 2, Jobs and Wosniak were hard at work constantly trying to come up with new ideas for an even more successful business. They came out with the Lisa in 1983, which was the first commercial computer that had a mouse.
The Apple computer continued to evolve over the years. The two successful business men came out with the Macintosh in 1984 which was the first computer that allowed people to issue commands by click on an icon with the mouse, also known as graphical user interface (GUI). This handy mechanism made it possible for people to no longer type out every command they wanted their computers to do. This was their most significant advantage compared to other personal computers of the time. Eventually PC’s would have ‘Windows’ as a GUI, but Apple had a significant technological jump on the competition.
In fact ‘Mac’ became the term of choice for their company after this time. Mac was always inventing new ideas to create a computer that was clean, straight forward, and user friendly. Following the Macintosh was the Mac Plus computer and LaserWriter printer in 1986 making it a huge success with desktop publishing. It wasn’t until 1994 that Apple created the Power Macintosh, the first high-powered personal computer. Constantly hard at work to develop new ways to simplify their computers the two men introduced the first I-Mac in 1998, a computer that would change the tech world forever.
Since the I-Mac, Apple has been constantly revamping, recreating, adding bells and whistles and simplifying their computers in the best ways they can find. They not only became successful with their I-Mac but Apple decided in 2001 to come out with other Apple products such as the I-pod, different computer software, I-tunes, and most recently the company has come out with the ever so popular I-phone, a phone that combines the features of numerous electronic devices.
The ever-expanding business has grown and has been recognized worldwide as the leader in computer design. Making the Apple even more appealing to more consumers it has recently partnered up with Intel, allowing for PC users to switch over to Macs with ease. Apple seems to have their marketing strategies and techniques down to a science. They seem to manage uncontrollable marketing pressures in areas such as social, economic, technological, competitive and legal challenges with success. Social Environment:
Apple has researched the uncontrollable social environment so effectively that they perhaps border on controlling it. There ability to adapt to changes in social pop-culture, and appeal to the current times and trends have earned them the sales they most definitely deserve. One cannot not deny the fact that certain Apple products and advertisements were so successful and appealing, that they in fact did influence and create there very own trends within the social environment, and have very much become a part of pop culture.
There ability to innovate with and appeal to the times and social demands of computer purchasers within the new and old generations is outstanding, and they have gained a lot of support and admiration in this sector, the social environment is certainly a friend to Apple. Technological Environment: One may confidently say that Apple has spent a lot of money and resources in being an adequate player in the uncontrollable technological environment. Being that they are the computer company that invests the most in research and development, and technological advances and innovations, they usually cquire the best the field has to offer, and successfully avoid or reject whatever bad opportunities may arise or cause conflict. There ability to scope through their technological environment, and benefit and control all the top technologies, is another outstanding strength in Apple’s business practices. Economic Environment: In the economical environment they are, like all products, susceptible to a decline in sales during economic recession, but in its niche of wealthy people, it is not as susceptible as PC’s perhaps are.
The wealthy will generally always have the spending power they need to buy whatever computer they please, and if Mac continues to advertise and niche the way it does it has a better chance of fighting economic fluctuation than computers that offer a more value based product strategy, as these people generally suffer more during economic turmoil. We must recognize that there is still a worldwide demand for Apple products though, as they are a global player, and countries such as China, Russia and India that are gaining wealth and buying power will demand these world famous products.
Legal Environment: Apple has even been lucky on the legal environment front. In establishing their computers in being the best for all forms of media creation, editing, and rendering, they have become part of school and governments budgets globally. School use them for various art and music classes, which are being encouraged more and more, and other government agencies such as the F. B. I or R. C. M. P that require the best in graphic generation and three dimensional imagery also prefer the Apple brand, and have made it an office necessity.
Students are also growing more and more accustomed to purchasing laptops for school. Other schools have made it mandatory to own and have a laptop at there disposable, greatly increasing sales (Salkever). There ability to lead in terms of graphics and art have earned them the right to be most efficient choice for schools and government agencies to utilize, in doing so they are mandatory and will be for a long time. I would also say that they should also watch out that PC companies do not sue them, as they are so frequently slandering their name.
Play ‘Much Ado About Nothing’ essay help writer: essay help writer
How does Shakespeare portray love in the play ‘much a do about nothing? ’ This topic covers about the way love is expressed in the play ‘much a do about nothing’. In the play, Shakespeare shows love in various ways. There were two main romances in the play that had very different qualities and different types or relationships and demeanours, so these two couples in the play have a contrast of how different their relationship’s are. So the first main romance we see in the play is of course, Hero and Claudio.
This is a pair of conventional lovers that have gone through a lot of ups and downs. This relationship has so many negative points and positive. As Claudio metaphorically asks, ‘can the world buy such a jewel’. This is showing those women were seen has objects, and makes you realise the gender inequalities. Of course, you see a comparison to the relationship that Benedick and Beatrice have, it’s a much more romantic, stereo typed relationship than what Beatrice and Benedick have.
Claudio is so in love with Hero, that Benedick claims Claudio changes as a person. “Seeing how much another man is a fool when he dedicates his behaviours to love”, is a quote by Benedick saying that Claudio has shown a feminine, amorous, passionate side to himself. However, this whole ‘in love phase’ soon changes with Claudio, as Claudio decides to exploit Hero.
This shows that Shakespeare has shown that although on the outside surface, Claudio and Hero have a perfect love relationship, it’s definitely not that underneath because Claudio’s judgements on Hero change so swiftly it’s hard to believe Claudio ever did love Hero. However, when we compare this messed up relationship with Beatrice and Benedick, you find that this is where true love comes into place. This is why the two couples contrast so much, because Beatrice and Benedick’s relationship is where the real love is.
As you watch Benedick and Beatrice joke and banter around during the play, you notice how similar their qualities are how much they have in common. As Benedick has broken his trust with Beatrice, seeing as Beatrice and Benedict had a untrustworthy relationship previously, they would insult each other immeasurably, insults back and forth like a tennis match. But deep down, Benedick loved that quality about Beatrice, her quick-witted, humorous comments.
Kodak Down Fall Reasons buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
What factors motivated Kodak to change its organizational architecture? a. Changes in the economic environment that increased KodakA’s ability to control the timing of new products. b. The need for centralized decision rights to ensure the company kept up with its new competition. c. Increased competition from Japanese and generic brands and rapid technological change. d. Increased understanding of the role of organizational architecture in improving firm performance. e. Internal changes in management and falling stock prices
Question 2 (1 point) Question 2: What mistakes did Kodak make in changing its organizational architecture? a. It initially changed the decision right system to a more decentralized one without making corresponding changes to the evaluation and reward systems. b. It designed an organizational architecture based on the good citizen model rather than on the happy is productive model. c. It created too many new business units that made the corporationA’s operations cumbersome and reduced communications among management d.
It failed to increase the specific knowledge of upper management to support centralized decision making. e. It initially changed the evaluation and reward systems without making corresponding changes the decision right system Question 3 (1 point) Question 3: What might Kodak have done differently? a. It should have retained a centralized decision making system because upper management had stronger incentives to work towards the success of the company
It should have developed a decentralized decision making system earlier to support the changes it made to the evaluation and reward systems. . It should have developed an evaluation and rewards system earlier to support the decentralization of decision rights and, when the system was finally implemented, it should have ensured that rewards benefited those who made good decisions rather than those who were good at office politics. d. It should have brought in new management with more specific knowledge of KodakA’s competitors. e. It should have reduced the percentage of compensation that was tied to a variable bonus Question 4 (1 point) Question 4: How does this example relate to the concept of Economic Darwinism? a.
Kodak used a suboptimal architecture in its new economic environment, which reduced the incentives of managers to make good decisions. Until the architecture was corrected, the company continued to lose market share to companies that were better able to operate in the new external environment. b. Kodak lost much of its market share because it was not protected from foreign competition by tariffs. Protecting domestic industries is important for keeping them strong. c. Kodak was not able to grow as fast as its competitors because it started from a larger base; small companies are able to generate faster growth due to their initial small size. . Kodak was able to survive because it was the largest company and could retain its market power even in a rapidly changing external environment. e. Kodak used a suboptimal architecture that was not designed to work in an environment where technology changes rapidly. In such an environment, centralized decision making works best because the upper level managers can keep track of changes affecting the industry and develop specific knowledge needed to oversee all areas of the companyA’s operations.
The Contribution of Positivist to Our Understanding of Methodology writing an essay help: writing an essay help
Assess the contribution of positivist to our understanding of methodology Positivism is a key concept in Sociology. It is also known to some as the scientist ideology. It is essentially the belief that the social world can be studied in the identical way that one may study the natural world, so it can be studied scientifically. The main opposition to this concept of sociology is the interpretive approach. They tend to stress the differences between the natural world and the social world. Positivism came about during the 1800s, during the industrial revolution, the concept corresponds with the era it was established in. n the 1800s, philosophy was considered useless and science was considered to be the solution to all of the world’s problems, it was accepted into society and not shunned away. Positivism was started by Auguste Comte who is regarded to be the first true sociologist, and was also studied and continued by his student Emile Durkheim. Auguste Comte was born on January 17th 1798. He was born in France. He was best-known for the theory that, society has gone through three stages: Theological, this is basically based on religion. Theories are explained in terms of God. The next is; Metaphysical; this is based upon forces that change the world.
And the third is scientific (positive) this is based upon science and maths. Comte believed that these laws could be applied to society as a whole, and that his method could be used to analyse and interpret society in to extreme detail and would lead to the better understanding of society. Methodology establishes ways in which data can be obtained about any given subject. Different forms can be taken such as questionnaires. These can be examined in detail to see if there is a pattern in society. Scientific methods are used by positivists. These methods lead to accurate and precise predictions.
Positivists use quantitative data to produce outcomes. Quantitative research is the scientific investigation of properties, and is always approached scientifically, hence the fact that it goes hand in hand with positivist research. Positivists believe that in order to gain an accurate outcome from any test, you should only study what you can see, and only what is tangible. For example, you can study ones emotions or reactions but not ones motive. They also believe that external stimuli are the factors that affect the human behaviour opposed to internal stimuli which is what goes on in ones mind. hey look for patterns and trends, and seek laws e. g. the relationship between crime and law. Through these methods, positivists can produce universal laws that can be applied to the whole of mankind. In conclusion positivism goes hand in hand with science. It aids us in understanding of methodology. In order to fully understand the sociological method, we need to understand there point of view and there understanding of sociology. The outcome of these methods depends on the individual sociologist.
Forms of Theory Organization compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help
They all contributed significantly to the development of classical organization theory. Taylor’s scientific management approach The scientific management approach developed by Taylor is based on the concept of planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. Acknowledging that the approach to increased productivity was through mutual trust between management and workers, Taylor suggested that, to increase this level of trust, • the advantages of productivity improvement should go to workers, • physical stress and anxiety should be eliminated as much as possible, • capabilities of workers should be developed through training, and • the traditional ‘boss’ concept should be eliminated.
Considering the organization as a segment of broader society, Weber (1947) based the concept of the formal organization on the following principles: • Structure In the organization, positions should be arranged in a hierarchy, each with a particular, established amount of responsibility and authority. • Specialization Tasks should be distinguished on a functional basis, and then separated according to specialization, each having a separate chain of command. • Predictability and stability The organization should operate according to a system of procedures consisting of formal rules and regulations. • Rationality Recruitment and selection of personnel should be impartial. • Democracy Responsibility and authority should be recognized by designations and not by persons.
Persuasive Essay grad school essay help: grad school essay help
Did you know that students are now required to complete at least ten hours of community service in order to graduate? In order for students to have a more positive experience, school administrators should add more activities within the guidelines. Some activities that will give students a more positive experience are serving at food kitchens, disturbing gifts at salvation armies, and helping out at nursing homes. Community service should be a positive experience for all students. The first activity that should be included in the guidelines for community service is serving food at food kitchens.
This activity will be positive for students because they’ll be helping to feed the homeless. Also students will be able to see the happiness they bring to others by giving back. This option should be added to the guidelines because it’s an amazing opportunity. Students are able to help others, which is something they’ll feel good about afterwards. Students are also influenced to further their education and do well in life so their never put in that predicament. Student will enjoy working in food kitchens as a community service.
Students are more likely to enjoy community service if school administrators add more to the guidelines. During Christmas time, the Salvation Army would be an excellent place to earn community service hours. This is good for students because they’re helping provide families that are less fortunate gifts to give to their children. Students also help create a food box for the family to take home so they have food for the holidays. This activity should be added to the guidelines because it’ll be a life changing experience for the students.
Students will be less likely to judge others because of the clothes they wear. Plus their helping some families feel more positive about Christmas. Helping in salvation armies would be a wonder experience for students as a community service. There are many activities that students could particpate in and have a positive expierence. Helping in nursing homes is one of them. This is positive cause students are able to help the elderly. Students also are able to learn from the wise and get good advice on life. This should be added to the guidelines because students are being positively influenced.
Their helping those who really need it. Their also being taught new things and receiving wise advice from the elderly. Helping at nursing homes should be added to the guidelines. With these three activities, students will receive a much more positive experience while doing their community service. Students are more likely to learn more with these activities. School adminstrarors will be impressed with the effect that that these activities will have on students, which is why they should consider adding them the guildlines.
Introduction to Antibiotics write essay help: write essay help
Antibiotics are among the most frequently used medications in the world today. A. They can cure anything from your minor discomforts to a life-threatening disease. B. However, if misused, antibiotics can cause many problems. II. Antibiotics are so overused, that the human body is becoming resistant to its cures. III. This morning I will show you that misusing antibiotics can be done without a person even realizing that they are doing it. A. First, antibiotics are used to feed animals to help with faster growth. B. Second, doctors are prescribing antibiotics when they don’t cure the disease the patient has.
C. Third, when a patient is prescribed an antibiotic, they may not continue taking the prescribed amount after the symptoms are gone. (Transition: You may not know it, but you might be consuming antibiotics when you eat a hamburger. ) Body 1. Throughout the years, antibiotics have been used in an agricultural setting to feed the animals and promote growth. A. An article dated January 28, 2008 entitled “Fight to Curtail Antibiotics in Animal Feed” by Sabin Russell in the San Francisco Chronicle, explains benefits and consequences of using antibiotics to feed these animals. . 70 percent of U. S. antibiotics are used in small doses in animal feed; not to treat disease but to promote the growth of the animals. 2. Antibiotics increase the speed of food-to-muscle conversion by 5 percent. 3. Antibiotics that are fed to cattle have been tied to the drug-resistances of salmonella which is found in humans. B. In his 2008 article “Antibiotic Resistance” in the Genetics Encyclopedia, Paul K. Small cited that the use of antibiotics in animal feeding is associated with antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria. Transition:
However, there are other ways that humans can become resistant to antibiotics other than simply consuming the meat of animals who had previously consumed an antibiotic. ) II. Misuses of antibiotics have also been linked to poor prescriptions that doctors give to their patients. A. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration stated in their article “Facts About Antibiotic Resistance” that antibiotics are given to patients more often than healthcare organizations recommend. 1. Doctors use antibiotics as treatment for the common cold or the flu, both of which are viruses that do not respond to antibiotics. . Some physicians are diagnosing a patient with little information about their symptoms, and will prescribe an antibiotic as a just-in-case. B. Doctors Thomas Hooten and Stuart Levy of the CME wrote in an article entitled “Confronting the Antibiotic Resistance Crisis: Overprescribing Antibiotics” blame the overprescribing on the doctors themselves. 1. Doctors may prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics instead of specific antibiotics to treat the symptoms that the patient has. a. Broad- Spectrum antibiotics are used prior to finding the cause of bacteria in a life-threatening situation, such as meningitis.
Doctors use these when there are multiple bacteria causing illnesses that need to be treated. b. Specific antibiotics are used against a select bacterial type, or when the bacteria causing an illness are known. 2. Physicians prescribe antibiotics to simply please the patient. a. Patients request the medication, making doctors feel the need to fill the prescription to keep the patents satisfied with the office. b. Patients pressure doctors into prescribing certain mediations so they can get back to work or school sooner. (Transition: Have you ever been prescribed a medication for a sickness, and stopped taking it when your symptoms stopped?
III. After the symptoms have stopped, a lot of people stop taking the antibiotics that they were prescribed. A. In an article written September 24, 2008 “The New Superbugs” printed in the Times of India, Bennett Colemen addresses the problems after an antibiotic is prescribed. 1. Patients use leftover medication if the symptoms come back in the future. 2. Drugs are distributed illegally- people who have used the drug for certain symptoms will give it to others who are currently having the symptoms. B. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration also address this problem. 1.
Patients who are prescribed antibiotics but don’t take the full prescription can cause a resistance to that antibiotic. 2. When people do not complete the scheduled course, the medication can act as a “vaccination” for the surviving bacteria. (Transition: As you can see, it is sometimes impossible to be aware that you are not using an antibiotic in the correct way. ) Conclusion I. Although people may think that the antibiotic is the “cure all” medication, using them when it is not needed will cause you many problems. II. The misuse of antibiotics can be happening in many ways, three of which I have just addressed.
A. Antibiotics that are being used in feeding agricultural animals to promote growth. B. Doctors over prescribing or wrongly prescribing an antibiotic. C. Patients who refuse to finish their full prescription, and continue taking a prescription when the symptoms reoccur. III. Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medicines in modern medicine. A. Antibiotics are vital in curing life-threatening diseases. B. Antibiotics should be used the way that they are meant to be used, so that they can benefit the users as much as possible.
Seligram Inc. Case Study admission college essay help: admission college essay help
Describe the existing cost system and explain why it failed The current cost system is based on two components: a direct and indirect cost measurement. There are only two types of cost: direct labor and burden. Burden is grouped into a single cost pool and represents the cost of both testing rooms, engineering burden costs (software and tooling development), plus the administrative costs of the division. Burden was then calculated for each lot, with a burden rate of 145% The lot’s total cost is the sum of the direct labor cost added to the burden cost. This existing cost system failed because of three main reasons.
The existing cost system is related to direct labor hours. -Vendor certification: with vendor certification, Selgrim’s suppliers do the primary testing of components which reduces the number of tests performed by the company. Indeed, from 2003 to 2005, because of vendor certification, the number of direct labor hours per lot has noticed a 30% decrease. Less tests done means less direct labor hours per lot. -The shift from simple inspection services to broader-based test technology: ETO became less competitive on elementary testing and on large lots. However, there were still cheaper regarding engineering support and high technology testing.
This change has led to a shift in the labor mix, reducing the quantity of direct labor and increasing indirect labor hours. -The need for automatic equipment: the new high technology components required more automatic and longer testing. Increasing automation would then lead to a smaller need of direct labor and would increase expenses in terms of automated equipment. Those are the three main reasons why the current cost system failed: they decreased the direct labor hours allocated per lot and increased burden. Finally, this would increase the final manufacturing cost and would make ETO less and less competitive. -Calculate the reported costs of the five components described in the case a-The reported costs of the five components using the existing cost system
Existing systemManager’s systemConsultant’s system Lot’s total cost12509. 75 $12767. 2 $13658. 41 $ Using the consultant’s system makes it possible to know more precisely the total cost of each lot by allocating each cost to its real driver. That is why the total cost per lot is more expensive in the consultant’s system than in the others. One can notice also that indeed, the manager’s system is better than the existing one. Still, the preferable system to use is the system proposed by the consultant, as explained in the next board.
In the manager’s system, the second pool includes all other burden costs and are charged based on machine hours; where as, the consultant treats the machine hours as two separate cost pools which are the main testing room and the mechanical room. This system leads to a large percentage of total cost of machine hours. Existing systemConsultant system Second poolMain roomMechanical room
Diversity Concerns in Public Health compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help
One of the Public Health provider’s professional responsibility is to learn and understand the diversity and cultural differences that exists in there area of operation and beyond, in order to address the health needs of these groups effectively (Woodward, 2010). One of the key agendas of the public health sectors in any country is to provide health care interventions that make a positive difference to the people and in a way that respects and values diversity of those people (UK DoH, 2004).
The government has a responsibility to ensure that the rights of the different people groups are protected in the law, so that all the citizens in the society, especially the vulnerable groups are protected from discrimination (Woodward, 2010). It is important for Public Health Professionals to recognize that it is expected for them to provide care for members of the society who are from diverse backgrounds. This paper provides a discussion on the diversity concerns of public health.
In discussing this topic, the paper looks at different people groups that exist in different parts of the world in regard to public health, their role and needs in relation to public health (Woodward, 2010). The Indonesian Cultural mores and their effect on public health practices From the 1970s, the cultural patterns of the Indonesians prompted the government to enact public health reforms programs owing to the rise in population density, water pollution, soil erosion, and siltation of river bends (Naya, 2010). Indonesia is a large region with an immense population of 237. 6 million people according to 2010 national census.
In the historical eras around 1970s and 1980s jobs were not very common forcing many Indonesians to become fishermen. Because of the increased number of fishermen in the area, they have almost exhausted the sea resources in the region and are now crossing into the Australian waters. Indonesia is facing many environmental problems which are as a direct of industrialization, overpopulation, illegal Fishing, and the pollution around the city. One example is the logging problem. This causes a rippling effect in many environmental areas; Indonesia’s air is polluted because there are fewer trees to absorb Carbon dioxide (Naya, 2010).
The cultural pattern that has been consistent among the Indonesians comprises of the Indianized rice growing peasants in Suimantera valleys, in Bali, and Java. Another cultural aspect is the coastal Islamic commercial workers. The various cultural patterns of the different people groups have an effect on the geographical resources of Indonesia (Naya, 2010). Historical factors and impact made on public health The economic crisis that hit Asia in the 1990s is one of the historical factors that forced Indonesia to carry out radical reforms in all sectors the government including the public health sector.
Decentralization of government functions was recommended and implemented in 2001. Since then, the public health sector has devolved its activities in the city, district governments and the municipalities (Bossert, et al. 2003). The decentralization effort in Indonesia has since then improved the equity and deployment of health services, as well as promoting the decision making process which has gone far and beyond in ensuring better policies that addresses the health problems among the locals (Naya, 2010). Current health status
A study conducted by Ascobat Gani in 2009, showed that in the underdeveloped cities and districts, distribution of human and health resources varied with a difference of 1 health resource serving 80 people. The ratio of public health officers, e. g. the sanitarians and health analysts were also noted to be differing significantly. This report is supported by the ministry of Health data which confirms that the distribution of public health professionals was still below the expectation. This is because for the 220 million people in the country, only 13585 health care facilities are available.
Agenda 5 of Indonesia’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG), is to improve sanitation services by 2014 (MDG, 2010) Human Niche diversity Theory The Indonesians owing to the diverse culture among them have specialized in utilizing the environment (i. e. , niche). Indonesia’s has population problems that center around population density. Together with the adjacent smaller islands of Bali and Madura, Java accounts for only over 7% of the Indonesia land area, Javenese account for 45% of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia, however, these islands are populated by approximately 135 million inhabitants.
The population of Jakarta district was 10,187,595 as of November 2011. Province of Papua represents 22% of the total land mass, with 1% of the population. The population of the island of Sulawesi was more than 16 million in 2005. Vast areas of Indonesia have incredibly low population levels while the majority populations concentrate around Java and Bali islands. Each people group uses the environment in different ways. Human niche theory explains the complex ethnic interactions and ethnic diversity in a congested regions in Indonesia (Naya, 2010). African Americans
Cultural mores and their effect on public health practices The cultural mores of the African-American culture, in the United States, are distinct and greatly significant to American culture as a whole. The culture of this people group is rooted in the African culture. Though slavery hindered there culture to thrive, most of their cultural values and practices survived and have merged with the American culture. Anthropological field researches conducted by such people as Melville Herskovits have indicated that the culture of this group of people still exists (NASTAD, 2010).
In relation to public health, I will focus on music. The phrase “Lift Every Voice and Sing” is a common among this group of people. Music was and still is a one of the ways the blacks evoke the past struggles and expresses solidarity among them. African American artists have continued to develop new genre besides the current rebirth of the older forms. Musical forms such as soul, rap and modern funk are common among the blacks. Incorporated in this music are the sexual undertones that underpin the culture.
Veterinary Technicians persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
Technician works as a skilled technical assistant to a veterinarian, or to another biomedical researcher or scientist. Veterinary technicians do not prescribe, diagnose, or perform surgery, and they always work under the supervision of a veterinarian. Thus being said, a veterinary technician career is a natural step for an aspiring veterinarian wanting to test the waters.
Most veterinary technicians find employment in private veterinary practices doing traditional clinic work, but veterinary technician career opportunities are also available in other fields, such as teaching, biomedical research, and zoo wildlife medicine. There are many prerequisites students have to take in order to be evaluated for admittance to a program. Biology, Mathematics, and English are required courses for all programs. Each program has other classes they require, but this varies for each program.
Veterinary Technician Programs generally consist of two years of academic study, resulting in a certificate, diploma, or an Associate of Science degree. Once in the program each student has to complete many classes. Courses required by all programs are: Anatomy and Physiology Lecture and Labs, Pharmacology, Pathology, Radiology, and Nursing Skills. Each program has different requirements as far as clinicals. Many programs have their students do externships basically to go out and experience what their job will be once graduated. In addition, all states have vet tech credentialing regulations (licensing, certification, registration).
Veterinarian technician competency is usually measured by an examination overseen by the State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners or other appropriate agencies. Veterinary technician careers often appeal to aspiring veterinarians, who can use their vet tech experience as a stepping-stone toward a veterinarian career. Vet tech careers also appeal to people who love animals but do not want to become veterinarians. This career is may also appeal to you if you are looking for a second career, or a new career, because vet tech programs can be completed in a relatively short amount of time.
Technicians have many different responsibilities. They can administer anesthesia to animals, under the direction of a veterinarian, and monitor animals’ responses to anesthetics so that dosages can be adjusted. Techs care for and monitor the condition of animals recovering from surgery. They get to prepare and administer medications, vaccines, serums, and treatments, as prescribed by veterinarians. Perform laboratory tests on blood, urine, and feces, such as urinalyses and blood counts, to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of animal health problems.
Collect, prepare, and read samples for laboratory testing, culture, or microscopic examination. Techs clean and sterilize instruments, equipment, and materials. Provide veterinarians with the correct equipment and instruments, as needed. Fill prescriptions, measuring medications and labeling containers. Prepare animals for surgery, performing such tasks as shaving surgical areas. Ann Martinez RVT is twenty-one years old and currently works as Head Technician at Animal Care Center in Metairie. Ann’s path started off like most of ours did, she loves animals.
At first she wanted to go into Pre-Veterinary Medicine, but then did some research and found out that Northwestern University had a Veterinary Technology Program and knew that was it! She started off their and loved it, but the program wasn’t intense enough for her. Ann found out about Delgado’s program and was sold. She moved back to New Orleans and started off as part of the Class of 2007. Right after school started Hurricane Katrina came through and displaced all. After struggling for a while to get back, school resumed with only half of the class.
Her class had to become extremely flexible because of this and came out on top. She graduated in May 2007. Shortly after graduating she applied to Animal Care Center and was hired immediately. Ann was nervous because it was her first job out of school, but she fit in greatly at the hospital and her knowledge was much respected. The hospital she works at is part of Delgado’s Program where the students come through and learn. Ann is really happy to be a part of it because she gets to give back to Delgado by teaching the students.
She recently became a faculty member of Delgado, Clinical Coordinator Assistant. She gets to go around to each student during their externship to make sure everything is going smoothly and on track. Ann plans on working in a hospital for a while, but plans on doing Pharmaceutical Sales for Veterinary Medicine companies in the future. She said “I am so happy where I am at in my life and wouldn’t change it for a bit! ” I am lucky and honored to say I work with Ann and she is a fantastic person and a great friend. She has brought a lot to our hospital and everyone is extremely thankful for that.
As stated before, the field of veterinary medicine is in great need of RVT’s. This has opened the door to a whole new career field for RVT’s. RVT’s can be expected to find opportunities in small animal, large animal, exotic animal or mixed animal veterinary clinics or hospital, specialty practices, zoo/wildlife medicine, aquatic facilities, biomedical research facilities, rehabilitation facilities, business and industry, pharmaceutical sales, military, humane societies, veterinary supplies sales, education and the list continues to grow.
Value and Fast Food Customers grad school essay help: grad school essay help
What situation did Skinner inherit when he became CEO? What are the current forces in the external environment that affect Skinner’s ongoing strategy? 2. What source of competitive advantage does McDonald’s have, and is that position supported by its value chain and other internal resources? -Inherit the previous CEO Cantalupo’s turnaround strategy. This strategy referred as the ”Plan to win” tried to target various critical areas that needed to be addressed. -Rapid market fragmentation, which is describing the changes of consumer taste have made once-exotic foods like sushi and burritos everyday options.
Many fast food customers are looking for healthier and better tasting food. Moreover, competitions has been coming from quick meals of all sorts that can be found in supermarkets, convenience stores and vending machines. Demographic – customers now working around theclock, expecting 24 hour access to fast food, how toplease range of customers from kids to contractors? Sociocultural – customers preferences have changed tomore exotic foods, healthier food with better taste Economic – current economic downturn means customers might be trading down to McDonald’s if they ant to eat out Global – boundaries are disappearing, travelers moreopen to global consistency in food offerings – GoldenArches are accepted, and expected, everywhere
2. Cost leadership has been the traditional strategy for thefast- food industry, but McDonald’s kept costs under control in order to achieve parity with competitors -McDonald’s tried to develop a differentiationadvantagewhile keeping costs at a reasonable level -Differentiation requires the creation of something that isperceived industry-wide as unique and valued bycustomers -Differentiation s achieved by a firm configuring its valuechain activities to support its position so customers arewilling to pay a premium for something unique – could McDonald’s do this effectively? Value-Chain Analysis: -Sequential process of value-creating activities -The amount that buyers are willing to pay forwhat a firm provides them -Value is measured by total revenue -Firm is profitable to the extent the value itreceives exceeds the total costs involved increating its product or service Value ChainActivity How does McDonald’s create value? Primary: Inbound logistics: Hard to assess
Operations: Strived for consistency across the chain, withdiffering results. Refurbishing of restaurants,change in hours may help draw customers. Outbound logistics: Hard to assess Marketing and sales: Many product innovations failed, $1 menu didn’t go well with franchisees. I’m Loving It campaign was attempt to reach all customers. Service: Hard to assess Value ChainActivity How does McDonald’s create value? Secondary: Procurement: Info not available in the case Technology development: Adoption of expensive cooking processesfailed to generate desired results.
Comparison Between Japanese and Malaysian Culture college essay help online: college essay help online
The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents. Urban population was estimated 86. 3 % compare with rural population consist 13. 7 % from the population. Interestingly Japan population probably down to 64 million in 2100 effected from declining birth rate and extending life of age. A major economic power, Japan has the world’s third-largest economy by nominal GDP and fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world’s fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer.
Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous, composed of 98. 5% ethnic Japanese, with small populations of foreign workers. Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Malaysia is a mega diverse country with a high number of species and high levels of endemism. It is estimated to contain 20 % of the world’s animal species. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics.
As of the 2010 census, the population of Malaysia was 28,334,135 making it the 43rd most populated country. The population of Malaysia consists of many ethnic groups. Malays make up 50. 4 % of the population, while other Bumiputra makeup another 11 %. 23. 7 % of the population is of Chinese descent, while those of Indian descent comprise 7. 1 % of the population. Obviously, Japan and Malaysia are two countries that vary in terms of geography, history and demography. Therefore, there would difference between the Malaysian culture and the Japanese culture in terms of beliefs, language, clothing, food and many more.
The following pages will show comparisons of some aspects of Japanese and Malaysian culture. More than 99 percent of the Japanese population speaks Japanese as their first language. Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages, also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in Okinawa; however, few children learn these languages. The Ainu language, which is unrelated to Japanese or any other known language, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido. Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Japanese and English.
The Japanese language is written with a combination of three scripts: Chinese characters called kanji and two syllabic (or moraic) scripts of characters, hiragana (used to write native words for which there are no kanji) and katakana (used for transcription of foreign language words into Japanese and the writing of loan words). The Latin script, romaji, is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, Romanization of Japanese characters, and when entering Japanese text into a computer. Arabic numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also common place.
The official language of Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia, a standardized form of the Malay language. Historically English was the de facto administrative language and remains an active second language. Many other languages are used in Malaysia since Unlike Japan, Malaysia is a multi-racial country. The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Chinese Malaysians predominately speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China.
The more common dialects in the country are Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou. Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians. Other south Asian languages are also widely spoken in Malaysia, such as Thai. A small number of Malaysians have Caucasian ancestry and speak creoles languages, such as the Portuguese based Malaccan Creoles and the Spanish based Chavacano language. Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages and is now written using the Latin script (Rumi), although an Arabic alphabet called Jawi also exists.
Rumi is official in Malaysia. 96 % of the Japanese population subscribe to Buddhism or Shinto, including a large number of followers of a syncretism of both religions. Japan enjoys full religious freedom and minority religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism are practiced. Figures that state 84% to 96% of Japanese adhere to Shinto and Buddhism are not based on self-identification but come primarily from birth records, following a longstanding practice of officially associating a family line with a local Buddhist temple or Shinto shrine.
According to Johnstone (1993:323), 84% of the Japanese claim no personal religion. Nevertheless the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. Beyond the two traditional types of religions, a great variety of popular religious movements exists in modern Japan. These movements are normally lumped together under the name “New Religions”. These religions draw on concepts from Shinto, Buddhism, and folk superstition.
The officially recognized new religions number in the hundreds and total membership is reportedly in the tens of millions. The largest new religion is Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist sect founded in 1930, which has about 10 million members in Japan. Malaysia on the other hand is multicultural and multi confessional. The dominant religion in Malaysia is Islam, whose followers make up 61 per cent of the population. Islam is recognized as the state religion of Malaysia, although the country has a secular constitution. Religion often follows ethnic lines, with most Muslims being Malays.
They believe that there is only one god, Allah, and Prophet Muhammad is Allah’s messenger in guiding the Muslims in this world. The Muslims live by following the five rules in ‘Rukun Islam’ that are the saying of ‘dua kalimah syahadah’, the performs of prayers five times a day, fasting in the month of Ramadhan, paying the ‘zakat’ and they perform of hajj. The country has both civil and Shariah courts, with all Muslims having to follow Shariah laws. The Malays follow the Islamic rules in wedding while the Japanese practice the Shinto wedding. There are similarities and differences between the Malay wedding and the Shinto wedding.
The Malays sometimes held arranged marriage for their children in order to have a tighter bond between two families. Many Malaysian Chinese practice a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. The majority of the Indians who make up 7 per cent of Malaysia’s population practice Hinduism. About 10 per cent of the population of Malaysia is Christians, including Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indian minorities. The most common denominations are Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic. Most Christians are found in East Malaysia, where GoodFriday is a public holiday in the states of Sabah and Sarawak.
Relations between different religious groups are generally quite tolerant. Christmas, Chinese New Year, and Deepavali have been declared national holidays alongside Islamic holidays. Various groups have been set up to try to promote religious understanding among the different groups, with religious harmony seen as a priority by Malaysian politicians. Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu dishes made from fish, meat, vegetable, tofu and the like to add flavor to the staple food.
These are typically flavored with dashi, miso, and soy sauce and are usually low in fat and high in salt. A standard Japanese meal generally consists of several different okazu accompanying a bowl of cooked white Japanese rice (gohan), a bowl of soup and sometsukemono (pickles). The most standard meal comprises three okazu and is termed ichiju-sansai. Different cooking techniques are applied to each of the three okazu; they may be raw (sashimi), grilled, simmered (sometimes called boiled), steamed, deep-fried, vinegared, ordressed. As Japan is an island nation, its people eat a lot of seafood.
Meat-eating has been rareuntil fairly recently due to restrictions of Buddhism. However, strictly vegetarian food is raresince even vegetable dishes are flavored with the ubiquitous dashi stock, usually made with katsuobushi (dried skipjack tuna flakes). An exception is shojin ryori, vegetarian dishes developed by Buddhist monks. Noodles are an essential part of Japanese cuisine usually as an alternative to a rice-based meal. Soba (thin, grayish-brown noodles containing buck wheat flour) and udon (thick wheat noodles) are the main traditional noodles and are served hot orcold with soy-dashi flavorings.
Chinese-style wheat noodles served in a meat stock broth known as ramen have become extremely popular over the last century. Malaysian cuisine reflects the multicultural aspects of Malaysia. Various ethnic groups in Malaysia have their own dishes, but many dishes in Malaysia are derived from multiple ethnic influences. Food preparation differs from place to place, although many of the foods used are alike. Spices, aromatic herbs and roots are all used in Malaysian cuisine. Like Japan, rice tends to be a staple food in Malaysia as in most countries in the region.
The rice eaten in Malaysia tends to be the local variety of rice or fragrant rice from Thailand, its northern neighbour. Quality Indian basmati is used in biryani dishes due to its long grained shape, fragrance and delicate flavour. Japanese short grain rice and others are slowly entering the Malaysian diet as Malaysians expand their culinary tastes to new areas. Noodles such as bi hoon, kuay teow, yellow noodles, ho fun and mee suah are popular food, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine, but used by other groups as well.
Malay cuisine bears many similarities to Indonesian cuisine, in particular some of the regional traditions from Sumatra. Many Malay dishes revolve around a Rempah which is made by grinding up fresh and/or dried spices and herbs to create a spice paste which is then sauteed in oil to bring out the aromas. Malaysian Indian cuisine of the ethnic Indians in Malaysia is similar to its roots in India. This cuisine consists of curries which use a lot of spices, coconut milk, and curry leaves.
Malaysian Chinese food is derived from mainland southern Chinese cuisine such as Fujian cuisine and Hakka cuisine but has been influenced by local ingredients and dishes from other cultures though it remains distinctly Chinese. Most Chinese meals have pork as their sub-ingredient, but due to the popularity and unique taste of the actual food, there are chicken options available for the local Malays (most Malays are Muslims). Nyonya food was developed by the Nyonya (Straits Chinese) and Peranakan (mixed Chinese/Malay ancestry) people of Malaysia and Singapore.
It uses mainly Chinese ingredients but blends them with South-East Asian spices such as coconut milk, lemon grass, turmeric, screwpine leaves, chillies and sambal. It can be considered as a blend of Chinese and Malay cooking with some Thai influence. Single Woman’sMan FormalMarried Woman’sBridal Kimono In modern Japan you have western clothing (yofuku), and Japanese clothing (wafuku). The various traditional ethnic garments worn in Japan are still in use, they are mainly worn for ceremonies and special occasions- like weddings, funerals, coming-of-age ceremonies (seijin shiki), and festivals.
Western clothing is worn more often in day to day life. The Japanese clothing consisted entirely of a great variety of kimono, the first of which appeared in the Jomon period, with no distinction between male and female. Japanese kimonos are literally wrapped around the body, sometimes in several layers, and they are secured in place by sashes with a wide obi to complete the human parcel. The furisode kimono is worn by single women; it’s usually bought for the coming-of-age ceremony but is also used for large social functions such as weddings and tea ceremonies.
The uchikake kimono is worn on a girl’s wedding day; it is all white and very long. The houmongi kimono takes the place of the furisode once a woman is married and is usually made of solid colored fabrics. The yukata kimono is a light cotton kimono worn during the summer and at festivals. The tomesode kimono is only worn to a close relatives wedding, never at a friend’s wedding. The mofuku kimono is all black and worn to funerals, showing respect for the person who has passed away. You also have the hadjuban which is a white kimono like undergarment that is worn under all of the kimonos.
Boys wear western suits for their coming-of-age ceremony, job interviews, work, weddings, and funerals, though the Japanese etiquette and rules of formality require the proper dress with great attention to detail, such as wearing a white tie to attend a wedding and a black tie, with the same black suit, to a funeral. Since Malaysia comprises three major cultures: Malay, Chinese and Indian, each culture has its own traditional and religious articles of clothing all of which are gender specific and may be adapted to local influences and conditions.
Traditional Malay attire is the “baju melayu”, a loose tunic which is worn over trousers and usually accompanied with a “sampin”, which is a sarong which is wrapped around a man’s hips. It is also often accompanied with a songkok or cap, on their head. Traditional clothing for men in Malaysia consists of a silk or cotton skirt and shirt with as carf like piece of cloth tied around his waist. This scarf is sewn together at the ends and is traditionally called a sarong or a kain. Most of the clothing is made up of bright and bold colors. The man also wears a religious hat. Malay women wear the baju kurung, a nee-length blouse worn over a long skirt. Usually a scarf or shawl is worn with this. Prior to the wide embrace of Islam, Malay women wore “kemban”, which were sarongs which were tied just above the chest. The classical everyday clothing for men in Malaysia is a short sleeved shirt worn outside the trousers, light-weight trousers and informally, sandals for comfort. The Chinese women wear the cheongsam, a one-piece dress with a high collar, diagonally closed with small clips or toggles (fabric clasps). It sometimes can have slits at the side, as is made with a soft fabric such as silk.
The cheongsam is especially popular around the time of the Chinese New Year and other formal gatherings. Older well-respected women wear a samfoo, which looks like pajamas with a separate loose fitting top fastened by toggles and ankle length, or above the ankle, pants. Indians in Malaysia as with elsewhere in the world wear sarees, a cloth of 5-6 yards which is usually worn with a petticoat of a similar shade. It is wrapped around the body so that the embroidered end hangs over the shoulder, while the petticoat is worn above the bellybutton to support the saree, which can be made from a wide variety of materials.
The Punjabi Salwar kameez is popular with women from northern India, and is a long tunic worn over trousers with a matching shawl. The fabric imported from India, made of the best quality silk is used in making saris. In formal occasions Indian men wear the “kurta”, a knee-length shirt usually made from cotton or linen. The Indian men wear Jippa, Sherwani, Lungi (short length of material worn around the thighs rather like a sarong), and Dhoti (the only drape that doesn’t start from one pallav but from the centre of the upper border with the middle of the cloth is tied around the hips.
Each end of the cloth is then draped around the leg on its side). The Sherwani: a coat like garment fitted close to the body, of knee-length or longer and opening in front with button-fastenings. Business culture in Japan Relationships drive business in Japan. Without the right depth of relationships with the right people, it can be very difficult to achieve anything. At the beginning proposal, we have experience when make an appointment with university and Japan companies. Communication very hard and need a proper planning.
At Japan we practice bowing as a showing politeness and respect. It is important to show respect appropriately. Age brings its own dignity and should be respected. It is probable, therefore, that more will be achieved with a delegation that contains some older members. When deal with Japanese, we try to be polite and diplomatic at all times. We never show irritation, annoyance or impatience. These negative emotions could put a strain on the development of the relationship. Here’s a listing of lessons we can learn from our visiting in Japan. 1. Business card gives and changers
A meeting in Japan starts with a formal and highly ceremonious exchange of business cards, a ritual referred to as meishi kokan. When receiving a card, a businessman takes it with both hands, reads it over carefully, repeats the printed information aloud, and then places it in a cardholder or on the table in front of him, referring to it in conversation when needed. He never drops it in his pocket. That is considered disrespectful. 2. Be politeness and patient It’s customary in a meeting in Japan to always direct one’s initial comments to the highest-ranking person present.
One never disagrees with him and always gives him his due attention. When bowing in the standard Japanese greeting, one should always bow deepest to the most senior man. 3. Morning meeting and exercise Many Japanese businesses start their day off with a morning meeting, where workers line up and chant the company’s slogans as a way of inspiring motivation and loyalty, and as a means of keeping the company’s goals fresh in their minds. Most of the Japan factorys at Malaysia practise this morning meeting and exercise. 4. Life for work hard and leisure time.
After a day of grueling negotiations, Japanese workers are ready to cut loose — way loose. Barhopping after work is a common, if not expected, tradition. If the workplace is stiff and ceremonial, the bar is where Japanese businessmen release the inner beast. A perennial favorite is the karaoke bar, where everyone is expected to sing along, even if they can’t carry a tune. Besides being a place to balance work with fun, nightspots are where coworkers bond and share information, reinforcing affiliation with a team. 5. Working behavior
The Japanese have an almost religious respect for the workplace. Humor is seldom used, except for light banter during breaks. There is hardly any physical touching among coworkers, and definitely no backslapping. 6. Communication, connection and endorsement Communication is very important in Japan, and often mentioned as a prelude to negotiations. It’s common for businessmen in Japan to arrange meetings with high-ranking executives solely to request their endorsement. The Japanese feel an obligation to be loyal to the endorsement of a well-respected peer.
A Customer-Centric Approach to Innovation write essay help: write essay help
Dell had long been an Intel-only shop. Landing Dell as a customer was the culmination of a four-year effort that AMD had codenamed Project MAID. Sunnyvale, California-based AMD designed and manufactured microprocessors for the computing, communications, and consumer electronics markets. With roughly 10,000 employees, the semiconductor company had 2005 revenues of $5. 8 billion, a 17% increase over 2004. The 2003 launch of Opteron and the company’s AMD64 technology ushered in a new chapter in AMD’s history.
Traditionally, AMD had been a distant follower to Intel, which had a dominant position in microprocessors for the server and personal computer (PC) markets. However, Intel’s dominance was eroding as Opteron gained acceptance and AMD focused on “customer-centric innovation” under Ruiz, who was appointed CEO in 2002. Driven by Opteron’s success, AMD’s unit share in servers for the second quarter of 2006 rose to 26%, up from 11% in Q2 of 2005. 1 The top four computer-makers that sold the vast majority of servers—Hewlett-Packard (HP), Sun Microsystems (Sun), IBM, and Dell—now offered at least one Opteron-based server.
Furthermore, AMD’s presence in the lucrative corporate segment was growing: 90% of the top 100 Forbes Global 2000 were using AMD64 technology by the end of 2005. 2 And, AMD reported higher margins than Intel in the first quarter of 2006. AMD also felt it had built enough credibility to lead the industry in new directions. The company had recently launched a marketing initiative called the “Power Campaign” to focus the industry on the importance of energy efficiency and systems designed to maximize performance at the minimum power consumption.
Accordingly, AMD was leading an effort to use “performance-per-watt”—in which it held an advantage—as the best benchmark to compare competing microprocessors. Yet, Ruiz saw challenges that could pose a threat to sustainable growth for AMD. Intel’s dominant market position could limit AMD’s ability to make inroads into key market segments beyond servers, such as corporate desktops and notebooks. Furthermore, Intel had just announced its “roadmap to recovery” that included a new line of microprocessors that balanced performance, power consumption, and cost.
perating system had to be compatible with the microprocessor and affected how well the processor performed its tasks. A Second Source for Intel
In 1981, IBM transformed the personal computer industry when it launched the IBM PC with the Intel 8088, a 16-bit processor conforming to Intel’s newly developed x86 microprocessor architecture. Hoping to achieve rapid penetration, IBM adopted an open standard to encourage software developers to design applications for the IBM PC. As the market exploded, IBM required Intel to license its patents to other chip suppliers to ensure a reliable supply of microprocessors and to spur price competition and innovation.
In 1982, AMD became a licensed second-source for Intel’s x86 family of processors, originally named because the earliest processors—excluding the 8088—had model numbers ending in “86. ” AMD later manufactured Intel’s 80286 (286) in 1986, but relations grew strained as the two companies disagreed over the cross-licensing agreement. AMD pursued arbitration in 1987 to gain access to Intel’s design for its next-generation processor the 80386 (386), a 32-bit processor. In 1992, the arbitrator awarded AMD more than $10 million in compensation and a permanent, royalty-free license to the 386.
AMD released the Am386 in 1991 and Am486 in 1993, low-priced clones of Intel’s 386 and 80486 (486) processors. In 1995, the two companies reached an agreement that recognized AMD’s rights to Intel’s microcode—the software code inside the processor—for the 386 and 486. However, AMD agreed it would not use Intel’s microcode beyond the 486 processor. Furthermore, AMD was prohibited from using Intel’s next-generation technology for connecting the CPU to the computer’s memory and other components, and the companies’ product development paths diverged. The “K” Series
How to Plan a Successful Trip essay help app: essay help app
How to plan a successful trip A trip is an energizer which stimulates us from the stress of daily life. The more our stress levels increase, the more interests and purposes of traveling are diversifying, and the importance of traveling is also growing bigger and bigger. Also, the developments of communication and transportation enable people to get a variety of information about other countries and have various chances to go abroad easier. So, how can you efficiently plan a trip that fits your purpose and avoid missing what you really want to see? The value of careful planning helps a traveler avoid foolish mistakes.
The experienced traveler uses planning time to establish several aspects of the trip. Making a wise plan for a vacation trip will ensure you to have an unforgettable experience. By doing these following tasks in advance, you will be more likely to have a successful trip: figure out the purpose of a trip, set priorities of places, decide a destination and period of a trip, establish a budget, gather information, and make a schedule with the flow of human traffic line. There are some materials you can use to achieve a successful trip; for instance, clothes, a map, money, and your personal documents.
It will be also very helpful for you during your vacation trip, if you take some medicines in case of emergency. Moreover, you need knowledge and skills such as online research and advanced reservation. This is a really important part because all the information no matter what you research influences your whole vacation trip. In addition, the more knowledgeable you become about your trip details, the more money and time you will save. The first step, it is important to know the purpose of your trip before planning any trip.
This may sound obvious, but it is crucial for a successfully planned vacation. According to an article of the tourist industry that I read, there are four main reasons people travel. The first reason travel is to gain health: they may have an illness that can be treated more efficiently in other countries. The second reason is to enjoy leisure time: most modern people need a break from stressful work. So, many people take a trip to break away from everyday routine. The third reason is to learn about other cultures, and the last reason is to gather information.
Most people are more likely to travel to gather information. The second step, after figuring out and determining the purpose of the trip, is to set priorities of places you are interested in. Each place around the world has a plenty of different tourist attractions and a particular atmosphere. It might be hard to set priorities among beautiful places. However, that might be the real charm of preparation of trip because it is a chance to let you know and see a variety of beauty around the world. When you make a list of the places you are interested in, you are ready for the next step.
For the third step, you should decide the most suitable destination and the time period of travel. When you are in this process, first of all, you should pay close attention to the local weather news. A well planned vacation can be easily ruined by a storm; heavy rain or extremely hot weather. Then, you can check the particular characteristics of each place because all the places have a various atmosphere. For example, some places are well known as historical places, while some places are well known as artistic places. Lastly, you need to pay attention to the political and social issues.
The fourth step is establishing a budget. A budget is the most important thing because all situations during vacation trips can be affected and changed depending on budget. When you are in this process, you need to check the local prices because this can help you establish a budget for the travel. In addition, you should compare the prices and options of all the companies when you make reservations for hotel, car and so on. The more you compare cautiously, the more you will be able to get a bunch of benefits. Above all things, you should be prepared for unforeseen occurrence in order to avoid unnecessary expenses.
So, it is better for you to establish a generous budget rather than a tight budget. The fifth step, after choosing the destination and a budget, is to gather all information about the destination, and figure out the local situation. Due to the fact that we are unfamiliar with the place, it is important to research the destination instead of quickly reserving plane tickets and traveling. What you have to be sure to remember is that the lack of information can ruin your whole vacation trip. It is not too much to say that the degree of our satisfaction about a trip is contingent upon being adequately informed before traveling.
In this process, you need to search not only the famous tourist spots where you should visit, but also the places where you should be cautious. All the places around the world have specific dangerous areas. So, you need to take special precautions when venturing out because it is not uncommon for thieves to target tourists. Here are some tips: tourists should not wear excessive amounts of jewelry and should carry a minimal amount of money. Next, dressing similar to locals can also improve your chances of not being targeted as an unprepared tourist.
In addition, instead of bringing a wallet, secure all money and valuables where thieves are less likely to look, such as in a zipped-up pocket. Finally, avoid wearing valuables that can be ripped off or easily removed. When you research the tourist attractions, it is helpful to search for particular events. Added to that, there are some ways to get discounts or coupons for bus pass, restaurant and admission fees to famous places. Lastly, you should recognize particular details such as holidays of the tourist attractions, local conflicts and the acts which are prohibited by law.
Being aware of the laws is a really important aspect of a vacation overseas. Finally, you should arrange an effective route for each day of whole trip by considering the flow of human traffic in mind and figuring out the exact location. The route shouldn’t be too hard on your body. You should map your route from one place to another, taking into consideration time and other limiting factors: first of all, you need to sort the places, which you found, according to the close location among them. Then, you need to calculate how many places you can visit among them by departure time standard.
For instance, if you stay museum for an hour, you check schedule and the method to move from museum to another place. In case you arrive to the airport, you also need to know how to get to destination from the airport, what transportation is the most effective to use. In conclusion, preparing for trip is a hard process. It sometimes takes long time, and causes extreme pressure. However, in the end, it is a very rewarding job. “At least a trip will bring you the three benefits: the first benefit is vast knowledge about other countries, the second benefit is an attachment to hometown, and the last benefit is self-discovery. said Bhagwan. A trip is not an escape forever from daily life but a pathway to meet renewed me. Additionally, it makes you get back to daily life with a full charged energy and broadened mental vision. Therefore, when you follow these all steps: figure out the purpose, set priorities of places, decide a destination and period of a trip, establish a budget, gather information, and make a schedule with the flow of traffic line, you are ready for having an adventure that greatly influences on your life.
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